The Biblical Flood
This global flood is also referred to as “Noah’s Flood” in reference to the Christian’s reference in Genesis 6-10 (about 2 349 B.C.) in The Bible. Many “modern day” people – even many “Christians” – today scoff at this. People who in their own minds think they are not indoctrinated (by atheists) and who is possibly “innocently” ignorant and proud beyond what is healthy for a future confrontation with their Maker. It is perhaps wise and prudent to put a hold on foolish and hasty claims that The Bible is just a mythical book of stories that is “unscientific” and not from our Creator. If the reader has read [many] a novel, why not be patient enough to read other fascinating possibilities as well? Even if by a mere human’s effort? See the paper “Evolution” by this author, if you will; but certainly visit www.trueorigin.org for credible scientific facts and profound points of view.
Note. The author of www.gospel-truth.co.za was
(a) Unable to contact Jonathan Grey on any of his published internet details
(b) Could not find any verification of the proposed finding of a city 6 000 feet under sea in the Nazca Trench in 1965 by the research vessel “Anton Brunn” as claimed by Jonathan Grey
(c) The summary following are extracts from “The Killing of Paradise Planet”, Secrets of that forgotten world, before the great disaster Book 1 of a trilogy (by Jonathan Grey); and interestingly, correlates closely to work [possibly first?] published by Carl Edward Baugh (born Oct 21st 1936 – see Wikipedia article on Carl Baugh). It is published here for demonstration purposes only, that other plausible scenarios closer to the Genesis account, is worth considering – more so than what atheists and evolutionists propose. Please take note of another fact: even a liar can [logically speaking] sometimes utter truth(s) or real possibilities… at least closer to the truth than people on a mission to discredit The Bible… (Consider the paper “The Bible” by this author on www.gospel-truth.co.za).
(d) The author of Gospel-Truth has removed in this extraction following, a totally fictitious political [racist] “dialogue” in this book by Jonathan Grey because it is (i) totally unnecessary, (ii) completely inept, (iii) written in embarrassing ignorance by Jonathan Grey on the real situation in South Africa [typical for outsiders of any situation]. Refer here to the paper by this author entitled “Israel-racism” for his view on racist (political) mindsets in whatever way, shape, or form. This correlates with Acts 10:34-36; Rom 2:11-12.
The following, then, as excerpts from “The Killing of Paradise Planet”, Secrets of that forgotten world, before the great disaster, Book 1 of a trilogy (by Jonathan Grey):
“We explored our planet’s jungles, desert sands and seafloor to extract forgotten secrets of a technology that had vanished. There emerged tantalizing hints of a lost super race that had been wiped out in some cosmic disaster. Now it’s time to peer closer into that mysterious lost world. We shall discover the event that snuffed it out. And its impact on those who survived and on their descendants. Indeed, as we shall find, shock waves from this event are still being felt today. Dead men will talk to us. Make no mistake. The implications are dynamite. Nevertheless, our quest is not based on ancient texts and reports, but on accepted scientific discoveries. There are recently discovered objects that cannot be dismissed – namely artefacts and corpses, entombed in the violently damaged structure of the earth’s crust. Some are in museums. These speak in thundertones of a disaster which was sudden and total.
Stand by for adventure… a gigantic adventure. Come with me now, far back into the centre of the Great Unknown. Our destination: a strange planet (albeit our own), 5,000 years in the past. We shall look in upon this super world that vanished so completely we thought it never existed.
The year was 1965. A research vessel named “Anton Brunn” was investigating the Nazca Trench, off Peru. The sonar operator called for the captain. “I don’ t know what to make of this,” he murmured. “Around here, the ocean floor is all mud bottom. But just take in these sonar recordings… At a depth of 6,000 feet a photograph revealed huge upright pillars and walls, some of which seemed to have writing on them. In other nearby locations, apparently artificially shaped stones lay on their sides, as though
they had toppled over. The crew rubbed their eyes and kept staring. Could this really be? … the
remains of a city under a mass of water more than a mile deep! Was this a city that had been overwhelmed suddenly by some gigantic disaster? And now it was buried under 6,000 feet (2,000 metres) of ocean? Water which never went away. … Thus begins our investigation of a lost world – one which was like a paradise, in many ways. It was different beyond our wildest dreams. Yet it was a REAL WORLD. As real as ours. In the next three chapters we shall probe its treasures, peer into its
mysteries and uncover a few of its tantalising secrets. Are you ready?
A SUDDEN CHANGE
A ONCE DIFFERENT WORLD There is evidence that our planet was once subtropical from pole to pole. Moreover, there was more land – and the sea level stood 2 or 3 miles lower than now.
A DAMAGED PLANET TODAY. We now inhabit a world that is damaged and impoverished, still suffering the effects of some worldwide disaster. A SUDDEN CHANGE OCCURRED There is evidence that something deadly and very sudden changed the climate in a flash, reversed the land and water ratio and virtually wiped out the world’ s population. REMAINS UNDER THE SEA Some intriguing finds on the seabed testify to this sudden change that interrupted human history.
As my investigation proceeded, it soon became clear that there was evidence for an ancient globally warm climate – from pole to pole. That itself was astonishing enough. But the next discovery was to be no less startling. It must have changed SUDDENLY. So suddenly that tropical animals were snap-frozen in mid-motion, to be preserved to this day with undigested food in their stomachs! Something deadly and very sudden wiped out the population, changed the climate, and REVERSED the land and water distribution of this planet. Did you get that? I’ll repeat it. There is evidence that our planet – this planet Earth of ours – was once subtropical from pole to pole and that – believe it or not – the SEA LEVEL stood 2 or 3 miles LOWER than now. There is evidence that something deadly and very SUDDEN changed the climate in a flash, reversed the land and water distribution of the globe and
virtually wiped out the world’s population. Yes, I know somebody will say I’m off my rocker. But before you do, let me state that THERE IS PERSUASIVE EVIDENCE THAT THE WORLD WAS ONCE VASTLY DIFFERENT. And compelling also is the evidence that WHATEVER CHANGED IT OCCURRED SUDDENLY.
This global deluge explains why today’s world is far from perfect. We inhabit a planet that has been DAMAGED and IMPOVERISHED, still suffering the effects of a worldwide disaster. You will notice from the graph below that water covers almost three quarters of our planet’s surface. Of the 30 percent area that is land, less than half is suitable for habitation at present. In other words, only 18 percent of our planet’s surface is now suitable for human habitation. Large areas now under perpetual desert or ice were once lush, fertile and inhabited. Large areas now under the sea were likewise habitable. I shall
give you evidence of this. Then something happened suddenly. It changed everything. Yes, we are now living on a planet that is DAMAGED and IMPOVERISHED. But this is not all. The earth after the Disaster was not only considerably reduced in land area. But even in this SHRUNKEN land surface area, the fertility of the soil and the natural resources necessary for human progress are UNEQUALLY distributed and LARGELY BURIED. … Professor Hans Pettersson, who had led the expedition said… “ I cannot explain it – except that that land must have sunk on the spot.”
Within a similar time frame, discussion was hot in London. Coral had been recovered from depths of over 3,000 feet (1,000 metres) in mid- Atlantic Ocean sites. Now we all know that coral grows only close to sea level. So in London, England, someone else was making a chilling diagnosis: “Either the seabed dropped thousands of feet or the sea rose mightily.”
AND STILL ANOTHER
Meanwhile, at Columbia University in the U.S.A., Professor Maurice Ewing, a prominent marine geologist, was reporting on an expedition that had descended to submerged plateaus at a depth of 5,000 feet. He was being interrogated. “Tell us, what did you find?” “It’s quite amazing,” was his response. “At five thousand feet down, the expeditioners discovered prehistoric beach sand. It was brought up in one case from a depth of two miles and the other nearly three and one half miles, far from any place where beaches exist today.” “How far from land was this?” “One deposit was 1,200 miles from the nearest land.” As we all know, sandy beaches form from waves breaking on the edge of the coastal rim of the seas. Beach sand does not form deep down on the ocean bottom. Then Dr. Ewing dropped his bombshell: “Either the land must have sunk two or three miles or the sea must have been two or three miles lower than now. Either conclusion is startling.” (M. Ewing, “New Discoveries on the Mid-
Atlantic Ridge,” National Geographic Magazine, Vol. XCVI, No.5 – Nov. 1949).
A WORLDWIDE WARM CLIMATE
There is definite evidence that our planet once presented a warm subtropical climate from pole to pole.
- Corals, which grow only in warm waters (of at least 20 degrees Celsius) once grew near the poles. Canada, Alaska, Newfoundland, Greenland and Spitzbergen contain fossil coral.
- Coal seams are also found near the poles. The vast coal beds are simply fossilised remains of trees and plants.
- The remains of animals now confined to warm regions are found all over the earth
Vegetation and animals
- Antarctica: In 1976, an Italian expedition discovered away below the ice – a petrified forest!
- Antarctica: The Admiral Byrd expedition found and photographed a mountain composed totally of coal, indicating former lush growth here. They also found ancient palm trees under the ice.
- Antarctica: In 1968, in the mountains of central Antarctica, an American expedition came upon the jaw bone of a crocodile-like amphibian (called a labyrinthodont), as well as skeletons of other animals – creatures that could have survived only in a warm to hot climate. Similar finds were made again in 1986.
- Northern polar regions: Abundant remains of tropical animals have been uncovered in icy Greenland, Alaska and Siberia.
- In these same northern polar regions are numerous fossil trees: beech, myrtle, laurel, breadfruit, cinnamen, oak, walnut, banana, grape vines, and so on. And from a line north of Labrador across to Alaska: giant sequoias.
- Spitzbergen and Greenland now shiver in darkness for half of the year and lie almost continuously under snow and ice. Yet a rich, temperate flora once covered these icy wastes in the Arctic Ocean. Fossil remains of magnolias, fig trees, palms, arborescent ferns (which are typically tropical) and animals from warm climates have been discovered… also pines, firs, spruces, cypresses, elms, hazels and water lilies.
- South polar region: Redwood forests are found buried under massive ice deposits. These towering giants (now typically found in the north-west of the U.S.A.) once flourished in many diverse parts of the world, as evidenced by many coal and fossil finds.
- Back to the Arctic Circle: Here are two very interesting island groups – the New Siberian Islands and the Spitzbergen Islands. Remarkable things have been reported by explorers who have been there. Immense frozen gravel mounts were discovered to have entombed within them entire fruit trees with the fruit still on them. (D.G. Whitley, “ The Ivory Islands in the Arctic Ocean” , Journal of the Philosophical Society of Great Britain, XII, 1910, p.49. Cited in Earth in Upheaval, by Immanuel Velikovsky, Dell ed., 1955, p.19)
- In the New Siberian Islands, whole palm trees have been found, with their leaves and fruit. Tropical animals cannot live in icy water. Neither can sub-tropical plants ripen seeds and sow themselves in arctic conditions.
“There is but one climate known to the ancient fossil world as revealed by the plants and animals entombed in the rocks, and the climate was a mantle of spring-like loveliness which seems to have prevailed continuously over the whole globe. Just how the world could have thus been warmed all over
may be a matter of conjecture; that it was so warmed effectively and continuously is a matter of fact.” (Alfred Russell Wallace, The Geographical Distribution of Animals, Vol 1. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1876, p. 277) “When nearly the same plants are found in Greenland and Guinea; when
the same species, now extinct, are met with of equal development at the equator as at the pole, we cannot but admit that at this period the temperature of the globe was nearly alike everywhere.
“What we now call climate was unknown in these geological times. There seems to have been then only one climate over the whole globe.” (Sir William Dawson, geologist, cited by Samuel Kinns, Moses and Geology. London: Cassell and Company, 1886, p.166) Paleobotanist R.W. Chaney has shown from fossil plants that the climate was slightly warmer near the equator and cooler near the poles. (R.W.
Chaney, Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 51 : 469-488. Scientific Monthly, 51 : 489-499) There were these slight differences of latitude climate, but not the present zonal extremes. Overall, the climate of Planet Earth was mild and spring-like, perfect from pole to pole.
This same warm global climate IN ALL SO-CALLED “AGES” OF STRATA
Worldwide warm climate seems to be indicated in practically every so-called “age” of rock strata. This is generally acknowledged. Whitcomb and Morris, in The Genesis Flood, cite testimony to this universally mild and warm climate in the subdivision rocks of the Proterozoic (Azoic), Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic “ periods” – that is, in practically all the strata (pp.243-245). Basically all of these strata contain the buried life of the ancient world. To many geologists this is perplexing.
For example, von Engeln and Caster say concerning the Jurassic system: “This universal tropicality is difficult to explain.” (O.D. von Engeln and Kenneth E. Caster, Geology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1952, p.491. Whitcomb and Morris, pp.250-255).
THIS ANCIENT WORLD EXISTED WITHIN THE MEMORY OF MANKIND
There is good reason to believe that this world of perfect climate existed within the memory of the human race. The traditions of ancient humanity preserve the recollection of it. The ancient Chinese say that before the great Catastrophe, “four seasons succeeded each other regularly and without confusion. There were no impetuous winds, nor excessive rains. The sun and moon, without ever being clouded, furnished a light purer and brighter than now.” (Harold T. Wilkins, Mysteries of Ancient South America. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1974, p.30). Numerous ancient traditions contain details of the world “before the Flood”, details which seem to stem from a common origin: the original perfect state; a glorious land; long age spans; but growing disobedience to spiritual laws – and eventual destruction.
A VERY DIFFERENT WORLD
There is evidence that the entire earth was VERY DIFFERENT FROM THAT WHICH WE NOW EXPERIENCE. It was a fabulous world beyond our power to imagine, much less to describe.
There were no ice caps, no blizzards or rigors of arctic cold, no disease-breeding heat of the tropics.
There were no enormous wastelands. No deserts, barren patches, or bleak and sterile hills. The rocky features were hidden, everywhere covered with a mantle of fertile soil.
Mountains. The mountain ranges were not the same high forbidding walls as found in the world of today. They were much lower, covered with vegetation, and did not seriously interfere with the climate as do today’s mountains. As E.H. Colbert noted in Scientific Monthly: “The land was low and there were no high mountains forming physical or climatic barriers.” (E.H. Colbert, “Evolutionary Growth Rates in the Dinosaurs”, Scientific Monthly, August 1949, p.71).
Ocean beds. Conversely, the ocean beds were relatively shallower than now.
Land distribution. There is evidence that the land and water areas were more evenly distributed, with more land than water, perhaps very much more. The great ocean basins of today did not exist. Instead, the land was partitioned by narrow seas and possibly shallow epi-continental seas (or marshes) in some regions of the earth. Have you noticed on maps how many of the contours of the continental
shores seem to fit like so many parts of a big puzzle? The distribution of fossils indicates that the present continental masses were once joined. This has led to the idea among many scientists of “continental drift” – something speculated to have occurred over millions of years. (Remember that there is dirt under the sea, continents don’t “drift like cork”). But could it just as well have happened suddenly through some massive upheaval of our earth? Today the study of the ocean floor confirms that the land masses HAVE been RIPPED apart. Yes, there used to be ONE continental land mass. The western continental shelf of Africa is believed to have fitted like a jigsaw piece into South America’ s eastern side. However, the small amount of erosion of these matching lines suggests not millions of years, but a fairly recent ripping apart. Up to this point, we have considered only solid proven FACTS – facts that can be physically examined. Such as those from which we deduce a former ONE continental land mass, for example. But here, I shall introduce an ancient document. Would it surprise you to learn that world history as given in the biblical book of Genesis agrees with this? Originally, so the record goes, “the waters were gathered into ONE place” in contrast to the “dry land.” (Genesis 1:9,10). Perhaps there is some truth in its “myths”, after all! As we advance into our discovery of known FACTS concerning the lost “paradise” world and what caused it to vanish, I believe we shall see increasing evidence that this often scorned book of Genesis does indeed contain forgotten knowledge of the past. Without apology, therefore I shall occasionally mention its references to that vanished world.
Watering system. Genesis tells us that one central river system branched into four rivers which extended and encircled areas of land. (Genesis 2:10-14). At least five “pre-Flood” regions are identified – Eden, Havilah, Cush, Asshur and Nod. (Speculation is futile regarding the site of Eden’s famous “garden”; initially the whole planet seemed to have been lush and anyway – the upheaval that changed the first world was thorough.) In those days no part of the land was too far from water; thus warm water currents were able to contribute to a mild climate everywhere. There was less range between highs and lows. Extensive underground waterways served as a sub-irrigation system. The warm waters below the earth’s crust emerged through great artesian springs to feed the surface rivers. (In Genesis 7:11 these are called “the fountains of the great deep”.) Remains of these subterranean streams have been discovered. We call them geosynclines.
No winds, storms or rain. We have noted the uniformly warm temperatures and the much gentler
topography of this original world. Winds and storms would have been impossible, since these results basically from interchange between hot and cold atmospheric conditions. Cyclonic winds did not occur, but there was, by implication, the presence of gentle breezes. The great global air mass movements that sustain the present hydrological cycle would have been impossible. Heavy rains could never have occurred. Thus one can take seriously the statement in Genesis (ch. 2:5-6) that daily local evaporation and transpiration, with evening cooling and condensation produced a daily mist. This would have kept the earth everywhere in a comfortable state of humidity and provided ample moisture to sustain lush
life everywhere. There was no need for rain. The warm waters of the narrow, shallow sea network likewise sustained a thriving complex of marine life all over the world. This primeval planet was indeed “very good.” (Genesis 1:31)
Lush vegetation and animal life. The luxuriance of vegetation must have been a delight to the eyes. It was more lush than we have ever seen – and that everywhere. How often today do we travel through tired, dry areas of stunted plants, which seem to frantically clutch at every available drop of water! And is it not a relief to arrive home and rest our delighted eyes on the fresh greenness of a tended garden? Originally the whole earth was a fresh landscape of vegetation springing up easily under optimum conditions. For example, in Antarctica, as we have noted, are fossil remains of tropical and temperate trees, giant ferns, and imprints of grasses, as well as vast layers of coal, extending almost to the South Pole itself; also tropical animals. Today’s enormous coal beds worldwide are irrefutable proof of the unparalleled luxuriance of plant life in the old world.
Protected Planet. Everyone knew what the weather would be like… tomorrow, next week,
next month, and twenty months from now. It never changed. Never any rain, no thunderstorms, no hurricanes, no droughts, no floods. If you offered your services to the T.V. station, they’d laugh you out of town just as they did when Noah prepared for a flood (Jesus referred to this in Matthew 24:36-39)! Yes, we’re talking about this planet earth of ours. How things have changed! Before the Great Disaster, this was a protected planet.
LIVING UNDER THE DOME
It is quite possible that the earth was at that time surrounded by an outer water canopy which intercepted the direct rays of the sun. Genesis speaks of the “waters above the firmament.” (Genesis 1:7) The Hebrew word translated “firmament” means, literally, “expanse”, referring to the atmosphere, or at least the troposphere (which is that part of the atmosphere in which there are no convection currents, storms, clouds, etc, – below the stratosphere). Can such a phenomenon really exist? Indeed. Canopies are quite common around the planets of our solar system. The planets Venus and Jupiter, and also Saturn’s moon, Titan, each have vapour or cloud canopies completely surrounding them. Such a canopy would diffuse the sun’s rays all over the globe. It would give the world a uniform climate. Incoming solar heat would diffuse so equally over all zones that a subtropical climate would prevail from pole to pole. The conditions would be like those in a terrarium! The average temperature would be about 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 degrees Celsius). It would also conserve heat from the sun’s rays by preventing its loss to outer space. Thus a larger percentage of the sun’ s radiant energy would be absorbed, uniformly distributed, and retained, than at present.
This canopy was probably invisible to earth’s inhabitants. It also formed a huge orbital lens, causing the stars to appear larger and much more numerous than they would appear to people on earth today. Of which we shall speak later. The probability of a water blanket around the earth in the past is put
forward seriously by competent men of science. Dr. A.E. Ringwood concluded as much in a paper submitted to the Lunar Science Conference at Houston, Texas, in January, 1970. He stated that early in the earth’s history it had a massive atmosphere, at a high enough temperature to evaporate certain elements collected by the earth as it moved through space. (Adelaide News, Jan. 12, 1970).
The possibility of a massive atmospheric envelope can be taken seriously. As the water was in orbit and could not be reached by the nuclei of condensation that are needed for cloud formation, rain was unknown until the Great Flood. There were no upsets in nature. The earth was, at that time, very different. Again I’ve mentioned the Great Flood. There are many modern sceptics who will express doubt that such an event ever occurred. And that character, Noah… Well, prepare for a shock or two. In later chapters, we shall uncover some surprising evidence – enough to make your head reel. But back now to the earth that was. There were no upsets in nature. That world was so different from ours.
No wonder the Great Flood was deemed “impossible”! One can understand why that “crackpot” Noah, when he broadcast the message given him that the world would be destroyed by a Flood, was disbelieved. It was a fearful and unheard of thing that God had threatened to bring upon the planet. It was “unscientific”,” unreasonable”, and nobody considered it possible. The great masses of the people were against him. The ancient manuscripts put it this way: “By faith Noah, when warned by God of things not seen as yet, moved with holy fear, built a boat to save his family; and by so doing condemned the world.” (Hebrews 11:7) But we won’t go into that now. Let’s take just another look at that water canopy…
EFFECT OF THE CANOPY – SUMMARISED
Let’s compare today’s world with a CANOPIED environment. Today, our equatorial zones get the brunt of the sun’s heat. Polar regions get little heat. Temperatures on this planet are extreme. As a result of these hot and cold air masses meeting turbulently, today’s weather patterns and continual storms are experienced. But just imagine a controlled terrarium state. Diffused sunlight and heat would result in:
* a moderate warm climate everywhere
* no winds and storms
* a continual growing season
* no encroaching wastelands of desert or ice
* lush vegetation worldwide
* protection from harmful cosmic radiation. Our present limited vapour blanket in our atmosphere is the very thing that makes life possible on earth today. Originally, a vast canopy of water above the earth’s atmosphere must have extended far out into space as a great protective blanket for the beautiful earth.
This virtual wall of water filtered or reflected most of the cosmic and shortwave length radiations that now reach the earth.
What could the results be? These two instantly come to mind:
1. Possible longer life spans.
2. Possible larger specimens of some plants and animals.
Is there any evidence suggesting this was so? Let’s find out…
“Bones of an alligator which was as long as a house and as tall as its ceilings have been found on the banks of the Amazon River in South America. Scientists estimate from the alligator’s 1.5 metre skull that it was about 2.5 metres [8 feet] tall, and about 12 metres [40 feet] long. Professor Carl Frailey, from Overland Park, Kansas, said the creature probably weighed around 12 tonnes. “This would make it about a tonne heavier than Tyrannosaurus rex… the mightiest of dinosaur predators”, he said. “A spokesman from the Guinness Book of Records said this alligator would have been the largest predator yet known. It would appear in the next edition as such.” This news report appeared in The Sunday Mail (Brisbane, Australia) on November 17, 1991, on page 3.
The ancient world was able to support animal and plant life of fantastic size and numbers. This is what the fossil remains tell us:
1. There was a wider and more even distribution of plant and animal life.
2. There was a greater variety of plants and animals than now.
3. Organisms were of a greater size and quality.
Yes, there has been a distinct deterioration of today’s animals and plants compared with the same organisms in fossil form. Fossil remains show that all terrestrial life has decreased in size. The
largest members of the animal kingdom are either becoming extinct, or shrinking as if touched by a magic wand. Mammals were often twice the size of their current counterparts. Here are some examples:
- kangaroos as large as hippopotamuses, with skulls 3 feet long
- horses with 13 inch (32 cm) hoof marks
- koalas as bit as rhinos
- elephants with tusks 14 feet (4 m) long
- sheep as big as today’ s horses
- boars as large as hippopotamuses
- baboons 13 feet (4 metres) tall
- rhinos about 17 feet high and nearly 30 feet long
- In the northwest of South Australia, between 500 and 1,000 skeletons were found of a colossal wombat as large as a rhinoceros! It was given the name Diprotodon.
- In the Himalayas, tortoises were found with carapices 20 feet long.
- Zoologists from Christchurch, New Zealand, chipped out of a cave roof a fossil skeleton of a penguin 7 feet tall.
- There are fossil eagles 40 feet long and 12 feet high.
Getting down to smaller creatures:
- We find dragonflies 18 inches long with wings up to 30 inches (75 cm) across – modern wingspan is only about 4 inches (10 cm).
- Some cockroaches were as much as a foot long (30 cm). Can you imagine that? (But no problem, because the hyper-oxygenisation of the aqueous medium – water – would have totally removed the threat of anaerobicic bacteria. I shall explain this hyper-oxygenisation of the original world in the very next chapter.)
- And 6 to 10 feet frogs (2 to 3 metres), had 20 inch heads (50 cm), and jaws more powerful than those of a modern ox.
- Imagine lobsters 6 feet (2 metres) long! They really were.
- And bats the size of sheep, with wingspreads of 15 feet (5 metres).
- Locusts with a 7 inch wingspread
- Snails almost a foot across
- And scorpions 9 feet long
This is not fantasy; their remains are found today, buried in the rubble of the old world.
- Coiled shellfish today grow to about 8 inches across, but fossilised specimens displayed in museums measure over 60 inches.
Plants. Plant life likewise was gigantic:
- Mosses grew 2 or 3 feet in height, instead of just an inch or so, as they do today.
- Horsetail reeds today usually grow to 5 or 6 feet in height. They used to be up to 50 feet tall.
- I recall reading somewhere of fossil trees that were up to a thousand feet tall (300 metres)!
Yes, it was such a different world. Amongst the fossils, giant forms have been discovered of almost every kind of creature alive today.
Dinosaurs. This discussion would be incomplete if we failed to mention those famous giants called dinosaurs.
- The gigantosaurus (fossil lizard) had a head and neck 40 feet long – and an 80 foot tail. Today’s Australian spine-covered lizard (and descendant of the scaly dragons) is only 8 inches.
- In 1986, remains were found in New Mexico of a dinosaur that when alive had been 97 to 120 feet (37 metres) long. This “earth shaker” weighed 60 to 100 tons. (Compare that with the modern bull elephant which weighs 7 tons.)
- The flying pterandon, 20 feet long, when in the air, would look as big as an elephant in flight.
- The brontosaurus, 60 feet long and 25 feet tall, could drink with ease from the gutter of a two-storied house. (One found in South America was as long as 150 feet – 46 metres!) A single dinosaur would probably have eaten up to 400 tons of food a day.
ONLY A SUPER-FERTILE WORLD COULD HAVE SUPPORTED DINOSAURS IN THE FOSSIL NUMBERS.
Giant humans. There is a belief that the ancient world had 30 percent oxygen in its atmosphere, against our 20 percent. (Some air bubbles trapped in ancient amber bares this out). When oxygen concentration increases it encourages gigantism. From all over the globe, skeletons, artefacts, fossil footprints, houses and tombs speak of a vanished world of massive men and women, to whom very little must have seemed forbidding; people who, born to an incredible lifespan, pursued from strength to strength almost limitless goals. The superiority, the nobility, of this race, we their descendants have all but forgotten. For some time after the Great Disaster, gigantism continued to a limited extent. Well-known zoologist Ivan T. Sanderson, who was also a frequent guest on Johnny Carson’ s Tonight Show in the 1960s, received a letter from an engineer who was stationed on Shemya Island in the Aleutians during World War II. While bulldozing for a new airstrip, his crew discovered under several layers of sediment what appeared to be human remains. The mound was actually a graveyard of gigantic human remains. Fascinating discoveries such as this have been made all over the world. The evidence of giant humans, animals and plants in the past is so widespread that it has motivated me to publish a book on the subject. It is called The Lost World of Giants. Says English scientist Alfred Russell Wallace: “It is quite clear, therefore, that we live in a zoologically impoverished world, from which all the hugest and fiercest and strangest forms have disappeared.” (Wallace, The Geographical Distribution of Animals, Vol. I. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1876, p.150,151).
Darwin was of course astonished to discover that “now we find mere pigmies compared with the antecedent allied races.” (Sir Henry Howarth, The Mammoth and the Flood. London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle and Risington, 1887, p.351). Darwin, through dogmatically hesitating to accept that the situation was changed by a great world catastrophe, could offer no satisfactory solution.
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS
Basic to the theory of evolution is the idea that as an animal evolves to a more complex form, it also increases in size. The very existence of these giant fossils is therefore an embarrassment to the evolution theory. These discoveries are usually ignored by evolutionists as far as possible. The simple truth is, essentially everything in the fossil record is larger than its modern counterpart. The gigantism that has been unearthed turns out to be predicted perfectly by the neglected biblical account.
So when the denigrated book of Genesis tells us “there were giants in the earth in those days” (Genesis 6:4), it is evidently recording not myth, but FACT.
IF A SNAKE BITES YOU…
Japanese physicist Dr. Kei Mori exposed plant life to two of the conditions of the original world ecology. He grew tomato plants under a plastic dome which filtered the ultraviolet rays; and he increased the carbon-dioxide. After two years, a cherry tomato plant was 16 feet tall, with 903 tomatoes
on it. After six years, the same tomato plant was over 30 feet tall and had produced over 5,000 tomatoes. That tomato plant just didn’t want to die. Ask yourself now, how long do tomato plants usually live? Perhaps five or six months? They die of old age, destroyed by ultra-violet radiation.
Could this have some bearing on how old people would have lived under the same environment?
The atmospheric pressure, as well as the oxygen content, had to be greater in the past, in order to support the huge life forms which then existed. Dr. Carl Baugh, of Glen Rose Texas, has set out to build the world’s first hyperbaric biosphere, 62 feet long. Its purpose is to simulate the context of our original world. An engineer from NASA has called it the greatest experiment ever performed in the name of science, in history. Among a selection of small creatures placed into an experimental prototype
of this first ever biosphere were two snakes. It was decided to test the snake venom. Over a period of time, Carl had the snakes milked three times. In the first test (before the snakes were placed in the biosphere) their venom looked like a lump of spaghetti – all together. After a period inside the biosphere, the snakes were milked again. And their venom still looked like spaghetti – but now the lump was separated. After a longer time in the biosphere, they were again milked and their venom examined. It now looked like honeycomb. Disorder had been transformed into order. Snake venom viewed with a scanning electron microscope is gnarled and unstructured. The sulphide bonds in snake venom produce the toxic agent under such conditions. But when ultra violet light is eliminated and the atmosphere pressure is doubled (simulating conditions that existed in the original world) the venom regains its structure. Dr. Baugh believes that in the atmosphere of the original world, a snake bite would give an injection of protein, rather than poison. And possibly such pests as mosquitoes might not have resorted to attacking humans, since they were satisfied on the nutrients in plants. Says Dr. Baugh:
“We’ve been doing extensive research into the ancient atmosphere, the one that produced the fossil record. Our research indicates that essentially everything was larger in the past. For instance, the club mosses which today reach sixteen to eighteen inches often approach two hundred feet in the fossil record. The great dinosaurs, with their relatively small lung capacity, reached tremendous stature. Seismosaurus could reach his head almost seventy feet in the air. Something has to explain this anomaly in terms of today’ s atmosphere.” The difference may well be in the atmospheric pressure:
“ In today’ s atmosphere we have 14.7 pounds atmospheric pressure per inch at sea level. But to oxygenate the deep cell tissue of these great dinosaurs we need much greater atmospheric pressure. Research has shown that when you approach two times today’ s atmospheric pressure, the entire blood
plasma is saturated with oxygen… . “Our research indicates there was about 27 pounds per square inch of atmospheric pressure [in the past]. That would beautifully solve a problem even paleontologists admit exists. “In addition, the oxygen supply in the fossil record has been found to be 30 percent oxygen compared to 20 percent today. Ancient air bubbles trapped in amber have been analysed and revealed this heavier concentration of oxygen. If we had those conditions today, we could run two hundred miles without fatigue.” (Baugh and Wilson, Dinosaur, pp.140-145). In summary, the atmosphere possessed more carbon-dioxide and oxygen (one of the by-products of vigorous plant growth).
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PROMOTED RAPID HEALING
Some time ago, a man inside a bathyscope deep under the sea had a nasty accident, in which his hand was badly gashed. However, it was a clean cut, so he pressed the wound shut and wrapped it around with a cloth. The surface crew wanted to bring him back up immediately for treatment, but this was not possible, due to the fact that the bathyscope was pressurised within, to compensate for the heavy outside water pressure at that depth. Gradual decompression would take several hours. So it was decided that the diver should stay down until morning. When he resurfaced, and the bandage was removed, what was their surprise to discover the wound well on the way to being healed! It seems that the pre-Flood atmosphere, in the event of an injury, served to promote faster healing. The atmospheric pressure, as well as the oxygen content, would have had to be greater in the past, in order to support the huge life
forms which then existed. This would have required some kind of canopy above the earth. To provide such a quantity of oxygen as required by the larger life forms, the oxygen would need to approach the level of toxicity, unless the atmospheric pressure was greater. In West Texas, a fossilised flying reptile, known as a pterodactyl, has been found, with a wingspan of 52 feet. There is no way such a “flying dinosaur” could have flown with today’s atmospheric pressure. However, with atmospheric pressure of around 32 pounds per square inch, it would have been a piece of cake.
CANOPY WOULD PROMOTE SUCH ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
Now envision the water canopy around the earth. Think of the effect this would have upon the atmospheric pressure. A document thousands of years old, in describing the pre-Flood earth,
speaks of a “ firmament” above the earth, encased by layers of water above and below it. (Genesis 1:7,8)Baugh calls this ancient canopy “ this double bubble of crystalline water”. He notes that approximately eleven miles above the surface of our earth there exists a heat sink. “It is between –130 degrees Fahrenheit and –180 degrees Fahrenheit at that elevation. Nearer to the earth it is warmer, and further from the earth it is warmer for at least some space. If we were to amass the amounts of water present on Earth, and assimilate the greater amount of water within the earth, this would leave the approximate remainder of a ten-to-twenty-feet thick lineal dimension double encasement of water in solid crystalline form as the firmament.” (Carl E. Baugh, Panorama of Creation. Fort Worth, Texas: Creation Publication services, 1992, pp.47-48). According to Dr. Baugh this “firmament” was “apparently in crystalline form – pure, transparent, relatively thin ice. It was probably no more than
twenty feet thick at best… The word used in the Hebrew to describe the firmament is raqiya. Hebrew scholars recognise that the word raqiya means to compress or pound out, and stretch out this arch of heaven in thin metal sheets.” (Ibid., p.48). This “firmament” apparently consisted of a layer of water, or compressed hydrogen, which extended completely around the earth. Indeed, the possibility of a massive atmospheric envelope can be taken seriously.
EFFECT OF A CANOPY ON THE ATMOSPHERE
With such a canopy, the atmosphere would be pressurised to a greater degree than we have now.
“Researchers, like Dr. Henry Voss, at the University of Illinois, have been able to approximate the atomic weight of such a canopy. This crystalline canopy would put a cap on the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure today at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch.” (Ibid., p.57) The air pressure of the world before the Great Disaster would have been about two times what it is today.
Do we have evidence of this? Indeed, we do.
SURPRISING EVIDENCE – A PRE-FLOOD HAMMER
In June, 1934, near London, Texas, members of the Hahn family discovered by a waterfall on Red Creek a rock with wood protruding from it. They chiselled it open, exposing a hammer head. The petrified hammer was found in a layer of Cretaceous sandstone. The handle was fossilised with a blackened coal tip. Scientists opposed to the idea that man-made objects could be found in rock “more than 100 million years old” associated with dinosaurs have expressed scepticism since the artefact was not found in situ by professionals. However, in the 1980s, Dr. Baugh took this artefact to the Batelle Laboratories in Columbus, Ohio, the same laboratory that analysed moonstones. The elemental analysis showed it to be 96.6 percent iron, 0.74 percent sulphur, and 2.6 percent chlorine. Physicists tell us that under today’ s atmospheric conditions you cannot compound chlorine with metallic iron. Yet here it is. Today, chlorine can be joined with iron as solid metal only in two atmospheres of oxygen pressure, and only in the absence of ultraviolet radiation. Of course, ultraviolet radiation would have been filtered out by the protective canopy.
Research indications are that the pre-Flood atmosphere is the only plausible explanation, for the forging of this metallic artefact. There is evidence that the oxygen ratio of the atmosphere was then 30 percent, compared with 21 percent today; and that the carbon-dioxide ratio was 2 percent, as against 0.035 percent today.
The first world (e) ANCIENT NUCLEAR REACTOR
Did you know that most metals in their purer state are TRANSPARENT? When our astronauts went to the moon, they wore visors coated with transparent gold – and they could see through them clearly. The gold protected them – shielded them – from cosmic radiation. (That reminds me that a 2,000 year old book – the “Revelation” – speaks of transparent gold. (Revelation 21:18)
During their research on the hydrogen bomb, physicists at Laurence Livermore National laboratories took the elements of water and compressed them under super-cold, cryogenic temperatures. Hydrogen (an element of water) became near-metallic in form. It took on the characteristics of metal. It became transparent, fibre-optic, superconductive, ferromagnetic and crystalline. The implications of this are tremendous, if we consult a very ancient description of our planet as it once used to be. The Hebrew book of Genesis is not a book on science, yet investigation into some of its statements, on occasions when it dips into scientific matters, has astonished me with its scientific accuracy. In its unique way,
Genesis states that above our earth the Creator stretched a “firmament”. This “firmament” was in the middle, with water above and water beneath. The Hebrew word for “firmament”, as we noted earlier, is raqiya, which means to press, or pound together into thin metal sheets. This seems to imply that the canopy, or arch of the heavens, was formed and stretched out around this earth in thin metal sheets.
One may be puzzled by this metallic description of the “firmament” given in Genesis. However, as an archaeologist working on other projects in the Middle East, I have learned that it pays to take ancient biblical statements literally, just as the writer intended. And in doing so, it has been possible to solve questions that still elude some other archaeologists. It was that same approach to Homer that enabled Schliemann to discover Troy.
So what is Genesis trying to tell us? Why is this metallic description of the “firmament” given in Genesis? It is now known that under super-cold conditions, with great pressure and tremendous energy, the hydrogen in water binds together in a crystalline lattice. One can envision a canopy above the earth consisting of compressed energized hydrogen taking on near-metallic characteristics. This would be
in the middle of a solid water formation suspended about eleven miles above the earth. According to the laws of physics, this canopy, to avoid being absorbed into the atmosphere, would have needed to be a solid canopy.
NOT TOTALLY DARK AT NIGHT
Such a canopy, being crystalline and ferromagnetic, would transfer energy. The energy of the sun upon this layer of hydrogen would cause a gentle pink glow. This is the colour that is produced by energized hydrogen. During the day, the greater penetration of light would produce varying shades of pink. The lowest pink hue would be at noon, due to the angle of the light passing through the firmament canopy.
In the lesser light of night a deeper shade of pink was seen, in addition to an enhanced moon. At sunrise and sunset it was a vivid pink; and at midnight the sky appeared magenta pink. When it was night on one side of the planet, there would be a transfer of energy from the day side of the earth along the curved lines of the canopy. Electro-magnetic energy would be carried along the lines of near-metallic
hydrogen, which was fibre-optic in nature. The result would be a twilight glow on the night side of the earth – a “lesser light” ruling the night. Earth’s inhabitants never saw total darkness.
EFFECT OF THE PINK GLOW
Scientists and researchers are discovering that the most important colour in the entire spectrum is pink. Energized hydrogen in the canopy giving off the pink glow helped to contribute to the enormous size of plant life. Biologists have found that under pink light the greatest plant growth is encouraged. It is pink light which optimally triggers the growth of cells within plants. Not only do plants grow better under pink light, but people respond in mood to pink light. Under the right spectrum of pink light, the brain secretes norepinephren, which is a natural tranquilliser and neurotransmitter. In the ante-deluvian (pre-Flood) world, the various spectra of pink light dominated, with a gentle pink glow day and night. The tranquillity of man’ s environment contributed to his brain working at maximum efficiency.
The invisible canopy formed a huge orbital lens, causing the stars to appear larger and much more numerous than they would appear to people on earth today. In those days the stars would appear about three times brighter. They would have been magnified and photomultiplied with vibrant colour.
Ancient records among many cultures recall a time in the past when the sky “hung low” – appearing closer. As a matter of fact, I was this morning reminded of this when I read the report of an Australian Aboriginal legend. It speaks of a time when “ the sky was close to the ground” and of an event in which “Yondi raised the sky” . (Roman Black, Old and New Australian Aboriginal Art, “The Story of the Boomerang”). This myth conveys the startling difference between the antediluvian heavens and the sky as it is viewed in the present age. NASA discovered some years ago that not only are stars emitting radio wave energy, but that there is a music on those radio waves. And to their amazement they found that the music being emitted is in a major key – it is harmonious. Astonished scientists compared the music being emitted from these star sources to the instruments of an orchestra that are all in tune with each other. (Carl E. Baugh, Panorama of Creation, p.66). Imagine it! Radio waves passing through the canopy and radiating sound – a beautiful harmony of sound!
The stars, as we know, shine in various colours – some are red, others gold, or green, yellow, amber, and so on. In that original world, a person looking up through the canopy could see the stars in beautiful full colour. Each morning, as the earth rotated toward the sun, when the angle was just right, the radio waves from the universe would be amplified by the crystalline canopy. (You may be aware that crystals amplify long radio waves.) Thus this “music” could be heard on earth. Whilst the canopy would permit the long waves of energy to go right through it, it would filter out the harmful shortwave radiation. What a wonderful world! It’s as though all this was intentionally put together!
HOW THE EARTH WAS HEATED
Today our atmosphere is heated primarily by shortwave energy from outer space. However, in the original world this would not have been so. The shortwave energy was filtered out by the firmament canopy. The heating of the environment was not from above, but from a gentle thermal blanket within the earth itself. Radio-active elements now in sedimentary rocks on the surface of our planet were once inside the earth. In the Great Disaster, these isotopes were expunged, or thrown out, to the earth’s surface.
The heat inside our planet cannot be explained satisfactorily by pressure and reaction. It can be explained only by nuclear reaction. Originally, the earth’s interior contained radioactive material, evenly balanced. Inside the earth, the radio-isotopes (uranium, strontium, rubidium, iridium and radio isotopic lead) were in perfect balance with moderators (such as manganese, sulphur, water and magnesium) adjacent to them. Thus the interior of the earth was a controlled nuclear reactor.
This would have gently warmed the ground and the atmosphere. At night the temperature would have been about 72 degrees Fahrenheit (22 Celsius), and about 78 degrees Fahrenheit (25 Celsius) during the day. It’s as though the interior of the earth had been deliberately designed for the benefit of mankind.
DESIGNED TO LAST FOREVER
The fissionable material inside the earth was designed to go forever, even as was the human body designed to be renewable. There existed what physicists would term a breeder reactor. As long as there was a constant energy input into the system, there would always be as many elements as you started with. A continuous input of energy from stellar space was absorbed into the crystalline canopy. The electromagnetic field of the canopy transferred this energy to the electromagnetic of the di-pole magnet of the earth. In this manner the energy supply was constantly restructured and replaced.
HOW THIS BENEFITED MANKIND
So it was that in the earth’ s interior we had a perfectly balanced thermonuclear reactor. Above that stretched a solid crust of granite around the earth. This crust was (and still is) from six to sixteen miles thick, with massive reservoirs of water retained underneath. Above the granite crust there would have existed a layer of sand or silicon, the element that is the most common worldwide. And vegetation would have been above this silicon layer. In the total context, there would have been a warming of the root systems, for superior growth. Experiments show that when plant roots are warmed just 2 to 5
degrees Fahrenheit, they produce 30 to 50 percent more foliage and fruit. And growing under pink light, with the amount of carbon dioxide slightly increased, and shielded from ultraviolet rays, the plants would grow better still. Add to that an increased atmospheric pressure permitting the absorption of more oxygen, and plant life could grow to abundance and to enormous proportions. There would be a continual growing season. This would also dictate the size of certain forms of animal life. Certainly,
these were optimal circumstances in which to live. Just imagine superior man with a perfect environment, perfect foods with complete nutrition… and no life threatening cosmic radiation.
A PARADISE WORLD
Add to that the lush scenery. In visible beauty, the world was “perfect”. Today’s most enchanting islands in the South seas are a mere echo of that forgotten world. Its landscape was refreshingly varied, from dry ridge to marshy expanse, from warm tropical valley to mild mountaintop. It was decked with surface mineral riches and lavished with bounties. The gaining of a livelihood must have been easy.
It is not mere speculation to describe that first world as a real paradise, because its mummified remains, found in abundance all over the world, do not lie. Just as Egypt’s pyramids and the ancient monuments are evidence of once great civilizations, so do the fossils speak eloquently of the glories of a world which has passed away. It looks like we had a wonder world… and somebody blew it.
The first world (f) COULD YOU REALLY LIVE TO BE 600?
WAS THERE A TIME WHEN LONG LIFE WAS REALLY WITHIN OUR GRASP?
The answer to the second question is… YES. THERE WAS THAT TIME.
Everything in the “pre-Flood” environment favoured the continued production of larger, stronger, longer-lived specimens of every type of creature. The fossil record confirms this picture. It should be noted that the memory of past long life in mankind is found in nearly all traditional writings. The best known, of course, is the Bible. It states very plainly that early man enjoyed a life expectancy of almost a
thousand years. It is difficult to conceive of anything like this today; it is much easier to be sceptical.
Nevertheless, accounts of man once living to a great age occur in the folklores and traditions of almost every ancient race. Egypt, Syria, Persia, India and Greece all possess traditions of a long-lived race during a previous age.
- Theopompus (c.378-300 B.C.) stated that a now sunken land was inhabited by men of gigantic size who lived twice as long as now.
- A Transylvanian gipsy tradition relates that “there was a time when men lived forever and when neither worry nor sickness troubled them. Meat and fruits existed in abundance, and the rivers flowed with milk and wine. Men and animals lived happy lives and were without fear of death.” Then came a worldwide Flood. (A.M. Rehwinkel, The Flood. Saint Louis, Missouri : Concordia Publishing House, 1951, p.140)
- Flavius Josephus, Jewish historian, cited earlier historians who claimed “that the ancients lived a thousand years.” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews)
- The Chibchas of Peru have a legend of a hero who lived for 2,000 years.
- The people of Yunnan, China, have preserved the memory of an age when all were prosperous and lived hundreds of years.
- The Greeks and Romans suggested ages of 800 to 1,000 years (reminding us of the biblical figures). If we are to believe that such records are based on a core of truth, then something dramatic must have happened. What changed the situation? Since this change occurred, the average life span of mankind has remained relatively constant over the past 3,000 years, though on rare occasions, certain individuals may live considerably longer.
- In eastern India, even in historical times, there were people who lived 400 years, according to Pliny and Solinus.
- In the Hebrides Islands, west of Scotland, there existed the custom of putting to death those who, after 150 to 200 years, had become so decrepit, that they were considered useless.
- In 1933, the New York Times announced the death of Professor Li Chung Yun who, born in 1677, had attained his 256th birthday. Those who saw him claimed he did not appear older than 52! He had outlived 23 wives and was living with his 24th at the time.
- In 1956, Mrs Maria Garson Viuda de Castaneda of Cucunuba produced a birth certificate in Bogota, Columbia, showing she was born December 30, 1778. Medical evidence supported her claim to be 177.
- As recently as 2003, the Guardian newspaper (United Kingdom) announced that a woman at least 124 years old had been found in the war-torn republic of Chechnya. Zabani Khachukayeva’s passport stated that she is 124 years old. Doctors, however, believed she may be even older. Apart from having impaired hearing, she was declared to be in relatively good health and said that she still felt energetic. Khachukayeva had outlived her eldest son, who died in 2001, and enjoyed 24 grandchildren, 38 great-grandchildren, and 7 great-great-grandchildren.
Warren Matthews commented: “It is possible to live to 120 years of age free from disease and still retain all of your faculties! Ever wondered how these people who live a long time in good health usually come from poor parts of the world and do not have the benefit of the so called ‘health’ system that we have in the Western world? Maybe they can thank the lack of exposure to modern pharmaceutical drugs for their long life? What do you think?”
Western scientists question such claims, including those found in the Bible. Judgment is made on present day experience and birth records of this century – the oldest age on record verified with certainty being around 120 years. Yet 17th- to 19th century historical records discussed in textbooks on
gerontology (the study of old age) are replete with ages of up to 188 years, in Europe.
- The oldest living person in 1973 was claimed to be Shirali Mislimov. He was living at Barzavu in Azerbaijan on the Iranian border. His age was alleged to be 167. Nevertheless, American scientists refused to believe it. One can only assess local records and testimonies. There is no other way to measure a person’s absolute age.
- A news report of another man in that general region who was said to be 165 years old. He had not spoken to his son for 20 years, because the naughty young 143 year old had married a woman of whom his father did not approve!
BUT IF SCIENTISTS CAN’T BELIEVE PEOPLE WHO ARE STILL LIVING TODAY, HOW WILL THEY EVER BELIEVE PEOPLE WHO LIVED THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO?
PERHAPS WE SHOULD BE SKEPTICAL EVEN OF OUR SKEPTICISM?
Until recent years, such figures might well be regarded as absurd. However, today’s medical standards and investigations of this question have reached a point where such claims can no longer be totally ignored, nor denied with a certainty that permits no doubt of any kind. For the moment, it can be said confidently that there is historical evidence to support the Bible’s account and no scientific reasons for doubting it. The fact that we do not now live for 800 to 900 years does not mean that such longevity was never possible.
WHAT SOME SCIENTISTS SAY
There are scientists who readily accept longer life as a reality. In fact, there is no biological reason why human beings die at the comparatively early age of 60 to 70 years. SEPARATED CELL TISSUES
HAVE BEEN KEPT ALIVE UNDER SUITABLE CONDITIONS FOR AN INDEFINITE PERIOD.
U.S. scientist Dr. Patrick Flanagan reported to author Alan Landsburg: “We’ ve had cells taken from the human body live in a nutrient solution inside a pyramid shape NINE TIMES THEIR NORMAL LIFE SPAN.” (Alan and Sally Landsburg, The Outer Space Connection. London: Transworld Publishers,
Ltd., 1975, p.148, emphasis added). Experiments on human fibroblasts conducted by Dr. Hayflick showed fifty population doublings to be the limit of cellular life. When other experimenters added Vitamin E to the nutrient solution, the life span of the cultures was more than doubled. (Ibid, p.148)
Professor Gennady Bardyshev, writing in the newspaper Sovietskaya Rossiya, foresees the possibility of man living for 200 years. He said experiments showed that by adding flat-fish fats to animal fodder, it was possible to increase animals’ life span by 15 to 20 percent. Dr Linus C. Pauling, world-renowned chemist, winner of two Nobel prizes and one of the most original thinkers of our time, states: “Death is unnatural… Theoretically, man is quite immortal. His body tissues replace themselves. He is a self-repairing machine. And yet he gets old and dies, and the reasons for this are still a mystery.” (Ibid, p.121). Dr. Alex Comfort, director of research in gerontology at University College, London, adds his opinion: “ If we kept throughout life the same resistance to stress, injury and disease that we had at the age of ten, about one half of us here today might expect to survive in 700 years’ time.” (Ibid., p.121)
Says Dr. Hans Selys, Director of the Institute of Experimental Surgery of Montreal University:
“Medicine has assembled a fund of knowledge that will now serve, I believe, as a point of departure for studying the causes of old age. If the causes of ageing can be found, there is no good medical reason to believe that it will not be possible for science to find some practical way of slowing the process down, or even bringing it to a standstill.” (Hans Selys, “Is Ageing Curable?” Science Digest, Vol.46, Dec 1959, p.1). “Someday we may live almost indefinitely.” So said Dr. Bernard Strehler, a biologist at the University of Southern California, according to Newsweek. So much for what some scientists have been saying. (See here the paper “The Testimony” on www.gospel-truth.co.za – author).
WHEN DID WE LOSE IT?
According to the ancient records, something extremely significant happened to the earth and to man at the time of the Great Flood. Whatever it was, it probably removed the dominant factor for long life.
Still, you may want to ask at this point, can we really place much credence in ancient legends? Surprisingly, a great deal. Too often, I’m afraid, we have been prone to dismiss folklore and mythology out of hand. But is this not unscientific, especially since traditions have often led us to discover physical remains?
LEGENDS ARE USUALLY BASED ON A CORE OF FACT
Pertinently, William Prescott, the great Americanologist, reminds us: “A nation may pass away and leave only the memory of its existence, but the stories of science it has gathered up will endure forever.” (Andrew Tomas, We Are Not the First. London: Sphere, 1971). You see, folklore is a fossil of history. It preserves history in the guise of colourful tales. Far from being a collection of fables, it is a recital of actual past events, even though from generation to generation some facts have become distorted or forgotten. We must face it: traditions are usually based on a core of fact. Take the legend of Troy. No scholar took The Iliad or The Odyssey of Homer as history. But Schliemann, putting faith in it, discovered the “mythical” city of Troy. The Iliad spoke of a cup decorated with doves which Odysseus used. In a shaft Schliemann found that 3,000-year-old cup. Mexican Indian legends spoke of a sacred well of sacrifice, into which maidens and jewellery were hurled. Historians dismissed this as a mere
tale, until the well, at Chichen Itza, was discovered in the nineteenth century.
More than any document, the Bible was assailed as a collection of fanciful myths. Yet, to the embarrassment of the critics, archaeological discoveries proved time and again that the fabled cities, mythical giants and impossible events were true and reliable reporting in every detail. Indeed, the Bible
can now be regarded as the most accurate and trustworthy source of history we possess. There is strong evidence as to the historical basis of the ancient traditions. We should be careful about discounting anything that is recorded that seems strange to us. The Bible in particular has an uncanny habit of being proved true.
THE LOSS OF LONGEVITY
Plotting the natural life span of ancient men as given in the biblical chronologies yields a statistically significant curve which surely argues strongly for the validity of the biblical records. (R. Young, Analytical Concordance of the Bible, 8th ed. Lutterworth Press, Guildford and London, 1977). In the biblical chronology, the first “ dot” of the chart represents the age of Adam. This is followed by each successive generation. A rapid decline in longevity correlates with the cosmic catastrophe that restructured the world in the time of Noah. According to Genesis, the average age was reduced from 857 years before the Flood, to 600 for the Flood survivor Shem, down to 147 by the time of Jacob, about 1850 B.C. By Solomon’ s time it was 95 years, then down to the Middle Ages, 35 years; and now today, up to 74 years. Interestingly, the ancient traditions (biblical and non-biblical) all point to a
long life span of individuals before the Great Flood, with a gradual decrease of life span afterward, until we reach the well-known three-score and ten of historical times. For example, the long ages recorded in the Sumerian King List are suddenly reduced after the Flood to about 100 years. This compares to a similar rapid decrease in the biblical record. And scientific findings agree. Studies of so-called cave men from various European sites (for example those of the Cro-Magnon group) likewise indicate an early death for many. A combination of factors seem to determine this result: a harsher environment after the Flood, poor diet and lack of sunshine in more northerly latitudes in particular (with consequent proneness to rickets), proliferation of disease, plus a greater propensity for mutations.
WHY LONG LIFE SPANS WERE POSSIBLE
Today the probability of survival over a century is less than one percent. I can think of several factors which favoured longevity in the past, and others which intervened to bring it to an end.
1. More vitality. Firstly, the antedeluvian (pre-Flood) race was, according to the ancient records, nearer to original perfection. Man was physically healthier, endowed with considerably more vitality than today. There would have been a richer gene pool in contrast to the depleted pool which prevails today. Also, if the human constitution allowed for a much extended capability of cell multiplication, the body would have greater ability for self-regeneration. These factors could well have contributed not
only to a much slower ageing process, but also to an extended procreative capacity.
2. Rich virgin soil. Antedeluvian man was nourished from rich virgin soil. This was devastated by the Great Flood. It washed through the original fertile soils and redeposited them unevenly as regards trace elements. The seething waters of the Deluge churned up the top soil of the earth’s crust. Later, as the waters receded into the newly-opened basins we now call oceans, they tore the fertile soil layer from the surface and flushed it down to the ocean floor, leaving behind a mere vestige of the original nutrients. The remaining water-washed soil lost its primeval fine balance of raw materials, so that plants were unable to supply optimum nutrition, as before. Even apparently healthy plants in today’s soils, while serving as good food sources, may be lacking in some essential element. Lack of iodine in some
soils is one example. In a single cubic mile of sea water there are about 170 million tons of dissolved mineral salts. We do not know how much was originally in the seas, but undoubtedly a large amount has been flushed from the soil. Thus one factor contributing to our loss of longevity since the Deluge may be the impoverished nutrition. Ancient records insist that the original diet of all animals was plant matter. Evidently this was rich enough in all necessary nutrients even for those animals which today we consider carnivorous. It is possible that many plant types did not survive the Flood. Consequently many animals with their short digestive tracts were compelled to adopt a flesh diet in order to obtain the required nutrients in sufficient concentration. Likewise, man turned to eating animal flesh in order to supply deficiencies in a once adequate diet. This change is recorded in the book of Genesis. (Genesis 1:29,30; 3:18; 9:2-5) Does the short life span of carnivores when compared to the longer life span of herbivores tell us something? At any rate, man’s life span decreased. Today, so deficient is nutrition that most people on earth go to bed at night on empty stomachs. The favoured sections of our degenerate race now live on vitamin pills.
3. The radiation factor. One could mention another factor – radiation. It is well known that ultraviolet radiation from the sun is largely responsible for “ageing” human tissue. Radiation can contribute to biological mutations. Genetic mutations cause deterioration in future generations, thus accounting for decreases in size and viability – and even extinctions of many animals. Then there are the
somatic mutations in the body cells which cause deterioration and eventual death of the individual exposed to radiation. Such somatic mutations may thus be directly related to loss of longevity. The radiation-free environment of the pre-Flood world may have been one more factor which contributed to the long lives of humans and the large sizes of flora and fauna. The protective vapour canopy must certainly have had a modifying effect, shielding life forms from cosmic radiation. It filtered out the short wavelength radiations which most actively accelerate the ageing process. After the Deluge, with the water shell gone, there began the unobstructed bombardment of life-shortening cosmic rays. The mutation rate was speeded up. The size and strength of the average creature deteriorated. Many species
became extinct. And the length of the life span began to decline. (These trends are still apparent today, although modern medicine and sanitation have, to some extent, masked the general trend as far as man is concerned.)
4. The climate factor. Another factor could have been the climate. As we noticed, the original
world enjoyed a more agreeable climate. Stress-producing hurricanes, droughts and floods were unknown. After the deluge, the healthful subtropical and temperate climates gave way to the frozen ice lands and the unbearably hot tropics of the new planet. Extremes of climate sapped the vital force of man and animals.
5. Carbon dioxide factor. Before the Deluge, there was, so fossil plant remains suggest, probably more carbon dioxide in the air. It is claimed that a “50 percent decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide in the air will lower the average temperature of the earth 6.9 degrees Fahrenheit.” (Gilbert N. Plass, “Carbon Dioxide and Climate,” Scientific American, Variation of Lease.201, July 1959, p.42)
A warmer climate in the past is therefore consistent with a greater concentration of carbon dioxide in the air at that time. Experiments show that with a sharp increase of carbon dioxide, tomatoes will grow and produce much better than in today’s normal atmosphere. Such a factor in the pre-Flood world may have been advantageous to life at that time.
6. The catastrophe factor. According to one theory, catastrophe itself could produce genetic mutation. Did the Flood and its traumatic, stressful aftermath (which persisted for centuries) induce a mutation that became the dominant factor in the human gene pool? And did that mutation rob man of his long life span?
7. Wrong living. Social problems must have emerged from developing a new civilisation in
the new, harsh conditions. Linked with this, the effects of wrong living and disease must likewise have taken their toll, eventually.
8. Special intervention. The biblical record suggests yet another factor: special intervention. The
decree went forth that in view of man’ s developed capacity for evil, his life span was to be limited. (Genesis 6:3; 9:3-5) It is the Creator who decides the life span of mankind. Were we, then, programmed to die earlier? Michael Maconochie reports that one important cause of ageing is “we are probably programmed to die. There is almost certainly genetic material in our molecular DNA – the biological building blocks which everyone is made from – which tells the body to switch itself off, permanently, at about 120 years of age.” At universities and medical research centres around the world, the multibillion dollar Human Genome project is under way. Genetic scientists are attempting a solution to this problem. (New Woman, Feb. 1993, pp.88-90)
[Note by the author (of www.gospel-truth.co.za.): contemplate the paper “The Testimony” to see why and how he disagrees that God programmed us to die at any specific age, for it is unbiblical. Rather, we could be “programmed” to die if we remain trapped in self-righteousness (Rom 8:6-8,13)…]
QUALITY – NOT JUST LIFE
Meanwhile, would you like to lengthen your life and enjoy it? Apart from the usual big three – regular exercise, sensible diet and vitamin supplements – Maconochie has this to say: “Concentrate on grains, vegetables, pulses and fruit – in that order.” Evidently, it does work. The book of Genesis tells us that man’s original diet was vegetarian. (Genesis 1:29-30). Hundreds of studies of one group, the Seventh-day Adventists, have revealed that the lifestyle they follow helps prevent disease, maintain health and
promote longevity. Detroit News book reviewer Kate De Smet found that half of North American Adventists were strict vegetarians and teetotallers who lived 12 years longer than the general American population and “ have lower fatality rates for the 10 leading causes of death in America.” (Reviewing
the book by Chris Rucker and Jan Hoffman, The Seventh-day Diet (Random House), 1991). Researcher Chris Rucker added to this his claim that this vegetarian group have more stamina and energy than others and “feel and behave decades younger than their years. They refuse to believe that aches and pains are a normal part of the ageing process, nor do they believe that mental deterioration is nevitable.” (Chris Rucker in an interview with the U.S. magazine Bottom Line, 1991). In this regard, Maconochie’s point is relevant: “Living forever loses its attraction, however, if we simply age, then live indefinitely in a fragile, disease-prone state. What s the point of being 120 if we can’t play tennis?”
The first world (g) JUDGMENT DAY
Something similar ruined the old world. It had fallen into the hands of men who were out to do their “own thing”. If we are to believe the ancient records, they had decided to “go it alone”, guided by their own intuition. “Be independent,” was the cry. “You don’t need a Higher Power to guide you.”So mankind pulled down the blinds on its Creator. They were in rebellion. That’s what the ancient records say… and eventually there was a mess. The nations of this planet Earth were in chaos. They had reached an impasse. No way out.
AGREEMENT ON TEN PRE-FLOOD GENERATIONS
A0n interesting point of similarity between the ancient traditions is the statement by many of them concerning ten kings (or fathers) who lived before the Flood.
- In Genesis chapter 5, ten successive “ fathers” are listed from Adam to Noah. Then, it tells us, the Great Flood came. ._ The Sibylline books of Babylon, as well as Hindu, Chinese and Phoenician traditions, agree that there were ten generations before the Flood.
- The Egyptians preserved a list of ten pre-Flood “gods”.
- The ten “kings” of the Maya (Central American) tradition refer to the same period.
- The “Kish King List” of ancient Sumeria likewise referred to “the ten kings who lived before the Flood.”
- Plato wrote of ten kings of Atlantis before it disappeared under the water. Could this be a memory of the same pre-Flood world?
- A “Stone Age” culture discovered during the late Middle Ages on the Canary Islands still maintained the ancient tradition of ten kings.
- The natives of Greenland preserve the tradition that ten generations of men had lived upon the earth when a universal Flood came and the whole human race was destroyed. It is significant that these ten anti-deluvian generations recur in the traditions of so many ancient peoples so widely separated in both time and place. They recur with a most stubborn persistency. They evidently have a common source in the same historical facts.
TWO DIFFERENT DOUBLE LISTS AGREE
The book of Genesis states that mankind polarised into two basic groups before and until the time of the Flood. The first group (Adam to Noah) continued for ten generations. The second group (the line of Adam’s son Cain) occupied eight generations. Sumerian tradition likewise preserved two lists of “kings” who reigned before the Flood. One of them contained eight names (as does the family tree of Cain), the other ten names (as does the family tree of Genesis 5).
“EXAGGERATED” TIME PERIODS
In the Babylonian history of the ten anti-deluvian kings, the obviously overstated “reign” of each king (one, for example, is said to have reigned for 64,800 years) raises immediate doubts. It seems dubious that the highly civilised and intelligent Babylonians could believe such a figure. Yet, modern scholars have attributed such nonsense to them. However, recent research has shed light on this problem. The Babylonian unit of measurement, the sarus, had two different values – (1) the astrological corresponding to a time period of 3,600 years) and (2) the civil (corresponding to 18½ years). When this is understood, the problem evaporates. One need only divide the reign of each Chaldean pre-Flood king by 3,600
to arrive at the basic number, then multiply it by 18½ to obtain the writer’s intended meaning. As Rene Noorbergen explains: “ The changes brought about through this method are so startling that in some cases the so-called reigns of the legendary Chaldean kings become almost identical with the important highlights in the lives of the Biblical patriarchs; that is, the birth of their eldest sons. “More important, however, is that this new approach boils down the total reign of the ten anti-deluvian kings to 2,221 years instead of the hundreds of thousands of years mythology ascribes to them – and this brings the new Chaldean figures of pre-Flood years believably close to the approximate number of years the Bible ascribes to the time that expired between Creation and the Flood… Due to the fact that Hebrew figures represent some very peculiar translation problems creating a number of minor deviations in the
numerous Bible translations, the Biblical time span that lapsed between Creation and the Deluge is given in at least three different figures. The Samaritan version of the early Bible books gives a total of 1,307 years before the Flood. The Masoretic text, on which the King James Old Testament is based gives a total of 1,656 years. The Septuagint version gives a total of 2,242 years. Compare the Septuagint total with the Chaldean account of 2,221 years, and we arrive at a difference of 21 years – a breath of years that is almost negligible.” (Rene Noorbergen, The Ark File Mountain View, Ca.: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1974, p.56).
Interestingly, the Toltecs of Mexico believed that the Flood came “after the world had existed for 1,716 years.” (Francis Hitching, World Atlas of Mysteries. London: Pan Books, Ltd., 1978, p.165). In the sixteenth century, the Indian savant Ixtlilxochitl in his Relaciones penned a history based on all available pre-Conquest records and legends, aided by his ability to understand the native tongue and decipher the hieroglyphics. The history began with the creation of the world by the supreme god Tloque Nahuaque. This first era lasted 1,716 years, until floods swept over the earth. This is only a 60 year variation from the figure given in the King James Bible.
In Genesis, it is said that men filled the earth. The possession at that time of a far greater vitality of body and mind than we have now would encourage a prolific human population. The climatic conditions of that original world, the abundance and accessibility of food supplies, of virgin soil and unlimited riches beckoning man to take possession: these were the most ideal conditions for population growth. We cannot be certain as to the world population when the disaster struck. But let’s do a little calculating. On a worldwide basis, five children per family is today considered average, with a female reproductive capacity of say, 30 to 35 years. Until recently, up to eight or a dozen children was considered the norm in many countries. Certainly the very much longer life spans in the anti-deluvian world must have facilitated a rapid population explosion. If the reproductive capacity of the pre-Flood woman was half her age (as is so for mothers today), then it would appear that 400 years of child-bearing per woman may not have been unusual. On this basis, a family of 20 to 26 children does not seem unreasonable. Let’s be conservative, and allow a family of just 20 children. If, as the ancient sources agree, there were ten generations of mankind up to the Flood, the population developed may have been something like this:
This is a figure close to the world’s population about 90 years ago. If we were to assume that anti-deluvian families averaged 22 children, then the figure increases to almost 5 billion – the population just a few years ago. Population figures change rapidly. In the early nineteenth century world population reached 1 billion; in 1930 2 billion; in 1960 3 billion; in 1974 4 billion; in 1987 5 billion; and in 1995 6 billion. World population grew very slowly until 1650, but then increased from 545 million to
2.5 billion in 1950. By the mid 1980s it had reached about 4.5 billion – and is now in excess of
6 billion. For a time, one generation simply “added” to the previous one. It is only comparatively recently that the “adding” has been replaced by “multiplying”. And the “multiplying” has produced an exponential growth curve. The Genesis record refers to a similar state of affairs shortly before the
Flood intervened. It says that mankind “began to multiply”. (Genesis 6:1) Is this how the pre-Flood population graph might look?: With a likely high birth rate and low death rate in that anti-deluvian world, the strong possibility emerges that mankind covered practically the entire globe. Pre-Flood population might easily have been as great as that of today – or more. It could easily have “filled” the earth, as Genesis says.
I think it was Albert Einstein who said that man uses only about ten percent of his mental capacity, that we have ten times more brain potential than what is currently being used. May I toss in a cat among pigeons? If evolution theory were true, then why on earth is the 90 percent of our brain capacity even there? According to traditional evolutionary theory, body parts are supposed to evolve because of a need for them. This 90 percent makes sense only in terms of original need and use. So if intelligence really were increasing, the brain would be increasing in size and complexity over the generations – the human brain would not possess, as it now does, large areas which are dormant, or nearly so. Whilst there is some evidence for a physical degeneration of mankind, it appears that the greatest degeneration has occurred within human intellectual capabilities. Since our brain has the capacity to store information many times greater than is actually utilised, the human intelligence potential seems, in fact, to have been designed for a creature with a much longer life span than we possess today. If the human brain was meant to be utilised to a far greater extent than it is at present – even if it did not use its full potential – then the individual would necessarily have had a far longer life span than he does, to obtain the fullest possible benefit from such extra intellectual ability. We might reasonably assume that the first man possessed the ability to use the entire capacity of his brain.
Did you know that nearly all the writings of ancient peoples worldwide tell the same story, that of a decline from an original “Golden Age”? Just think of it! With longer life spans and vastly greater brain power – augmented by knowledge imparted by the Creator – the pre-Flood race must have been capable of scientific and inventive reasoning far beyond our present capacity. There is now evidence that the earliest races did create a civilisation vastly superior to our own. I used to be a sceptic concerning this. We are taught by evolutionary “history” that early man was primitive. The story goes that we ascended to our present civilised state by a slow, uninterrupted development. However, twelve years of specialised research, as well as on-site investigation of the FACTS, ultimately compelled me to face this truth: that there was an original advanced world which gave impetus to all succeeding civilisations.
There are recently discovered artefacts that cannot be dismissed, namely objects of metal sitting in museums, unquestionably made in the ancient world, that would have required very advanced technology to produce. A technology not to be repeated until our day. The weight of evidence grows daily – evidence that all the major secrets of modern technology were known, and forgotten, long ago. Evidence that early mankind did create a society that surpassed ours in all aspects of development.
Could ancient man really have produced such things as earth-orbiting satellites and computers? In my book Dead Men’ s Secrets, the lid is lifted on more than one thousand surprising discoveries – from the seafloor, jungles and desert sands of our planet. There are forgotten secrets that almost smack of science fiction. The evidence is fascinating, even startling! An ancient Vedic manuscript discovered in India, The Samarangana Sutrachara, devotes over 200 pages to describing how to build and fly wingless aircraft. It deals with no less than 49 types of “propulsive fire” used in these vehicles. Some systems used electrical or magnetic forces, others the power of heated mercury. Other ancient documents, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and Drone Parva, also give accounts of these “Vimanas” and their abilities. With ancient man’ s incredible mental faculties, tremendous advances were made, advances that you and I can’ t even begin to imagine. Because of the difference in the mental capacity between us and the anti-deluvians, their civilisation may have followed a very different path from ours. It may have contained elements that are incomprehensible to us and excluded much of what we consider essential.
After the Great Deluge, as the physical earth changed and life spans shortened, human intelligence would deteriorate rapidly – yet not before some super civilisations sprang up. Bu, as it turned out, their secrets would soon be lost.
REASON FOR THE GREAT FLOOD
A fatal circle of influences ruined the old world. Ancient records are adamant that the basic cause of the Deluge event was spiritual – that it was a judgment on man’s wickedness. We read that crimes unknown to the law, never before seen in the world, were rife. Science was leading the way. Experimenters, by altering the created genetic codes of humans and animals, were creating monstrosities. There was corruption of man and beast.
Two groups were polarising: the Sethites who preserved and respected the original laws given by the Creator of the planet; and the Cainites who were obsessed with materialism and raw pleasure. The Cainites were haughty and shrewd. As intervention approached, they had just about conquered the
minds of the Sethites. The number of faithful was diminishing at an alarming rate. Finally, those that stood out were confined within the narrow limits of a single family group. Unless there was intervention, there would soon be no survivors. It is recorded that “the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and… every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.” (Genesis.6:5) The human race had become almost totally depraved. (Genesis 6:12) and “the earth was filled with violence.” (Genesis.6:11) A beautiful world was transformed into a house of destructive madness. The balance of nature and the very existence of life on earth was in doubt. Men like Enoch spoke up loudly that a day of reckoning lay ahead. Noah tried to save his contemporaries from the coming disaster. Few listened. There are hints, however, that some elite groups took his warnings seriously enough to propose an evacuation from Planet Earth. Allegedly, sanskrit texts in the University of the Punjab tell of space flights 3000 BC. According to Dr. Ruth Reyna (who was commissioned by U.S. Space authorities), these flights were considered imperative due to the threat of a coming Deluge on earth. (Jonathan Eisen, Suppressed Inventions and Other Discoveries. New York: Avery publishing Group, 1999, p.504)
On the brink. Human life on this planet was poised to blast itself to extinction because of self-righteousness and overly obsession with the self (manifested in lust in greed). It was time for supernatural power [Righteousness and Love of the original designer] to intervene. A cleansing of the planet would prepare it for future generations. So it was that the surface of the entire earth was now to be disturbed, refitted as a more austere and less bountiful home, where a rebellious race would be better off with less ease and abundance, in an environment not conducive to longevity. For this new start, an untainted family was spared. They were to be rewarded with life in a new world free from the present human threat. The destruction of the original earth is portrayed by ancient traditions as a sovereign act of the Creator. Natural laws were to be the agency. Created forces already latent in nature were to be released for a season. These forces would act according to known laws of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics. So it happened. Suddenly it struck … a disaster neither man-made nor ordinary. Various natural agencies were suddenly orchestrated on an unnatural scale. And when you consider all the evidence taken together, it does hint at some Intelligence involved. Just a handful of people lived to see both worlds. The records tell us that they already knew WHEN it would occur and they had been preparing for 120 years.
THE FIRST WORLD – Summary
CLIMATE Geology testifies to a once mild and uniform climate over the entire globe. There is reason to believe that this paradise world existed within the memory of the human race.
SURFACE Most of the earth’ s surface was then land. There were no high mountains forming physical or climatic barriers. Ocean beds were relatively shallow.
PLANTS AND ANIMALS There was luxuriance of vegetation, pole to pole. Plant and animal types were of greater variety than today. They were also more widely and evenly distributed – and of greater size and quality – than their modern descendants.
VAPOUR CANOPY A vapour envelope surrounding the planet not only precluded winds, storms and rain, but also filtered out life-shortening cosmic rays.
LONGEVITY Several factors favoured a much longer human life span. Indeed, while ancient records recall such longevity, modern science admits to its possibility.
POPULATION Expansion over some two millennia may have produced a population comparable to our own, sufficiently large to cover the earth.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY With the incredible mental faculties of man at that time, tremendous scientific advances were made, advances that we can’t even begin to imagine.
CORRUPTION AND VIOLENCE Yet mankind was sliding into spiritual bankruptcy. Corruption was widespread. Violence was exploding out of control. The race may have become totally extinct, had not supernatural power intervened.
PARALLEL WITH TODAY Population explosion – a proliferation of science and technology – worsening corruption – exploding violence. Does that sound familiar?
INTERVENTION Suddenly the great disaster struck. It was neither a man-made accident, nor an ordinary calamity. It appears to have been an intelligently directed event, in which vastly different natural agencies were suddenly orchestrated on an unnatural scale.
Flood traditions (a) WORLD IN SHOCK
THE MOST DEEPLY-ROOTED OF ALL TRADITIONS
The Great Flood was known to all peoples of antiquity. The tradition appeared in sunny Egypt, Greece and Australia, in mountainous Peru and Mexico, in icy Greenland and the sandy Gobi. Tim La Haye and John Morris list 204 Flood traditions from widely separated parts of the world. (Tim La Haye and John Morris, The Ark on Ararat, pp.233-238). But the original mirror of the story has probably been shattered into some 600 pieces. In each broken fragment the object can be seen. It is more distinct in some fragments than in others. Over time, these traditions have been modified, transformed in the
retelling. For example, over time, geographical locations became uncertain. But, stripped of their accumulated and sometimes fantastic embellishments, there is almost complete agreement among them all on the essential facts of the great catastrophe. The legends are still just enough dissimilar to offer convincing proof of a shared memory. Says Hugh Miller, noted Scottish geologist: “There is, however, one special tradition which seems to be more deeply impressed and more widely spread than any of the others. The destruction of well-nigh the whole human race, in an early age of the world’s history, by a great deluge appears to have so impressed the minds of the few survivors, and seems to have been handed down to their children, in consequence, with such terror-struck impressiveness that their remote descendants of the present day have not even yet forgotten it.” (Hugh Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks. New York: John B. Alden, 1892).
When Alexander Humboldt, the famous nineteenth century naturalist, penetrated new regions of South America unknown to the Old World at the time, he discovered tribes of wild natives. “And yet among these forgotten races of the human family, he found the tradition of the deluge still fresh and distinct; not confined to a single tribe, but general among the scattered nations of that great region.” (Ibid, p.284). Humboldt concluded that “the legends had their origins in a firmly-rooted, racial memory common to all men.” (Violet Cummings, Has Anyone Really Seen Noah’ s Ark? San Diego, Calif.: Creation-Life Publishers, 1982, p.233). Of course, the thought is devastating, but could it be that our modern concepts of earth’s history are in need of revision?
CONTENT OF FLOOD LEGENDS
It may be of interest to glance at a few of these Flood traditions. For each main point, we shall cite the common biblical record, followed by a sampling of the world’s racial traditions.
Rebellion of mankind. “And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth… only
evil continually … and it grieved his heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the fact of the earth… I will destroy them with the earth.” (Genesis.6:5-7,13)
- Egypt: Nu, the ruler of the seas, set out to wholly destroy mankind who was in rebellion
- Bolivia: A great Flood was sent to punish men s pride and insolence. In most of the legends around the world, the reason for the catastrophe is the same.
A divine warning. “And God said unto Noah … Make thee an ark… with thee [8 persons] I will establish my covenant.” (Genesis.6:13-18; 7:13) ._ Iran (the Zend Avesta): Yima was ordered by a god to prepare for a world deluge.
- India: Manu, the father of the human race, was instructed to build a ship and take in seven others (total 8), plus all the different seeds. The waters reached the mountains.
- North America (Great Lakes): After a warning of the coming deluge, the hero built a vessel for his family and the animals. They floated for several months.
- Sumeria (Gilgamesh tablets): The hero was warned of the coming deluge and built a vessel lined with pitch.
- U.S.A. (Yuchi Indians of South Carolina and Georgia): A big flood drowned all but those who had been warned of the impending disaster.
A survival vessel: man and animals. “Come… into the ark… Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female, and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female: to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.” (Genesis.6:14-16; 7:13)
- Alaska: The father of the Indian tribe, warned in a dream that a deluge would desolate the earth, built a raft on which he saved his family and all the animals. They floated on the water for several months.
- Australia (Aborigines): The flood survivors used rafts and canoes and carried birds and animals. – (Aborigines): A rainbow serpent came down when a great flood was supernaturally sent because of man’s wickedness, and told 8 people to climb on board its back so that it could save them from this flood.
- North America (Iroquois): One family was saved, with two animals of each kind. – (the Thlinkeets): Several people survived the deluge by seeking shelter in a great floating building.( H.H. Bancroft, Works of Bancroft, Native Races. San Francisco: A.L. Bancroft and Company, 1883, vol.V, pp.20,21).
- Greece: Lucian, in his account of the Greek traditions, speaks of the ark and the pairs of different kinds of animals. (De Dea Syria, sec.12)
- India: The animals were taken on board the boat to escape the great flood. (The Bhagawata Purana, a Hindu poem of great antiquity (Asiatic Researches, vol.ii, mem.7)
- Mexico: (Toltecs): Men were destroyed by tremendous rains and lightning from the sky, and even all the land, without the exception of anything, and the highest mountains were covered up. A few escaped from this destruction in a “tpotlipetlacali” (a closed chest). Other undisputed sources of antiquity considered the Flood to be not local, but a worldwide event.
The name “Noah”. “And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him.” (Gen.7:11)
- China: The Chinese ancestor Nu-Wah survived the destruction of the world by a flood and accomplished the reconstruction. There followed legendary heroes sometimes referred to as the Three Sovereigns (Noah’s three sons?). After these came the Three Dynasties, Hsia, Shang and Chou (held by scholars to initiate the historical period).
- Venezuela: In the Sierra Parima between Brazil and Venezuela, there is reported to be a dead city called by the name of Ma Noe, signifying “the waters of Noah.”
- The name Noah has survived for thousands of years, through a multiplicity of stories, even though oft times it evolved into a slightly different spelling, depending on the letter symbols used. This is remarkable, when you consider the wide separation across the earth, as well as the ultimate language differences between peoples, and the extreme local distortions which developed in Flood legends. Yet the same name survived virtually unchanged in such widely separated places as
– Hawaii (where he was called Nu-u)
– the Sudan (Nuh)
– the Amazon region (Noa)
– Phrygia (Noe)
– Africa (Noh and Hiagnoh – among the Hottentots)
– Egypt (Nu)
– Turkey (Nuh)
8 survivors. According to the biblical story, 8 people survived – Noah and his wife, their three sons, and their three wives. (Genesis 7:13)
- Hawaii: When Kane decided to destroy the earth which man’s wickedness had spoiled, he allowed Nu-u, the Righteous Man, to escape by building a great canoe with a house on it. He was told to take on board his wife, 6 other people (total 8) and all the animals he wanted, to await the great flood. The rains came, the oceans merged and all mankind perished. Eventually, as the waters subsided, the rainbow became a token of forgiveness, and Kane told Nu-u and his three sons to repopulate the earth.
- Mexico: An old Toltec myth speaks of all the world drowning, except 8 men who escaped in a house like an enclosed ark. They called it “Tlapitlipetlocalli” , and painted it on their rolls as a small boat with an awning on top, and 8 heads peering out. (Harold T. Wilkins, Secret Cities of Old South America, p. 419)
- China: In a Chinese Flood story, the hero escaped the destruction, together with his wife, three sons and three daughters. Total 8. And here is a fascinating aspect of ancient Chinese writing. It contains words that can be traced only to “Nu-Wah” and the Flood. For example, the ancient character for “ship” (still printed in Chinese books and papers) is composed of the pictures for “ boat and “ 8 mouths, suggesting that the first ship was a boat carrying eight persons. (C.H. Kang and Ethel R. Nelson, The Discovery of Genesis. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1979) From a study of the Chinese ideographic system of relaying written information, it is clear that there were thought to be eight survivors within both words for the Ark and the Flood itself.
Noah’s “three sons”. The biblical account speaks of Flood survivor Noah and his three sons,
Japheth, Shem and Ham. (Genesis 7:13)
- India: The hero of the Flood had three sons – Iyapeti, Sharma and C’ harma. (Compare these names with Japheth, Shem and Ham.)
- Greece: Homer, in his Iliad, shows us that the Greeks likewise recollected three brothers. The Greeks trace themselves back to Japetos. (Compare that with the biblical Japheth.)
- China: The Chinese Flood survivor likewise had three sons.
Time of the year. “… in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.” (Genesis 7:11)
The season of the year in which this fearful event destroyed the human race was later commemorated worldwide. That season was the New Year festival, observed at the disappearance of the Pleiades, at the end of October or early November. (The first month of the ancient year fell in October, not January as it does today.). Davidson and Aldersmith have made precise calculations and conclude that the 17th day of the second month of Genesis corresponds to either October 30, 31, or November 1, of our Gregorian calendar. (D. Davidson and H. Aldersmith, The Great Pyramid: Its Divine Message. London: Williams and Norgate, Ltd., 1936, p.38) The Genesis year began at the Autumn equinox, in the Northern Hemisphere. The festival at this date was one of the most universal of all customs. It was observed in connection with THE MEMORY OF THE DEAD, or as a feast of the ancestors. At this time of the year, the memory of the dead was observed by
– the Aborigines of Australia
– savages of the Society Islands
– the Hindus
– the Irish
– the Persians
– the Celtic Druids and in places as WIDESPREAD as
– Mexico, Egypt, Fiji, France, Peru.
The DAY OF THE DEAD (our Halloween) was a commemoration of the MASS DISAPPEARANCE OF A LARGE PART OF THE WORLD’S INHABITANTS.
- In Mexico, “the festival of the dead” was held on November 17. They had a tradition that, at that time, the world had been previously destroyed. And they dreaded a repeat of it. (Ibid., p.25)
- In Egypt, the 17th day of the Egyptian month Athyr, or Hathor (our November) was identified with the Festival of the Dead. In Egypt, Hathor was considered the “angel of death” and was associated with the destruction of the earth by water. It appears that, originally, the 17th day of the second month of the original pre-Flood year was commemorated as the 1st day of the 1st month of the early Egyptian Calendar year. (That is, they calculated their new year from the date the Flood had begun.) But as time went on, the persistence of the tradition connecting the festival of the dead with the 17th day of the month, led to the adoption of the alternate Egyptian dating. Thus November 17 became an alternate date to November 1. This alternate dating (November 17) was used by certain cults in Egypt during Dynasties XII and XIX, in Ptolemaic Egypt. On this day, a priest would place an image of Osiris in a sacred ark and launch it into the sea, to disappear from sight. (John Urquhart, Modern Discoveries and the Bible. London: Marshall Brothers, 1898, pp.175ff)
- The date November 17 also occurred in Rome as an alternative date to November 1.
- The Hindus celebrate “Durga”, a festival of the dead. This was originally their New Year’s Day and it was celebrated on November 17.
- The month of November was, in Persia, formerly called “The Month of the Angel of Death.” They celebrated the feast of the dead at this time.
- In Australia, Aborigines celebrated the festival of the dead in November, when the Pleiades is most distinct. This constellation was specifically worshipped as “THE GIVER OF RAIN.”
We have noted that the correct anniversary of the Flood was either October 30, 31 or November 1 (although the fact that this was the “17th” on the old pre-Flood calendar did lead to celebrations on November 17, as well). Worldwide, however, the FESTIVAL OF THE DEAD is associated with a
date generally ranging from October 31 (All Hallow’ s Eve, or Hallowe’ en) to November 2 (the modern All Souls). These traditions shared a common remembrance of the dead, which seems to commemorate some major calamity that overtook the human race. There are echoes of a perishing world and the rebirth of another. A definite connection appears to exist between this worldwide festival and the biblical record that the Great Flood began about the beginning of the ancient New Year (October-November): “… in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month.”
The year. In a previous work (Dead Men’ s Secrets) I dated the Flood and the rise of Egypt with its post-Flood sister civilisations, too early. At the time, I noted (page 349) that the month and day were more accurately determined. But the year, I suspected, could be subject to revision. New evidence confirms that this suspicion was well founded. According to the exhaustive research done by Davidson and Aldersmith, (pp.438ff), the common astronomical chronology of the Hebrews, Egyptians and Babylonians defines that the Deluge occurred from 2345 to 2344 B.C. The astronomical chronology of the Hebrews and Egyptians defines that the Deluge began on November 1 (Gregorian calendar) and officially terminated on November 11 the following year. Davidson argues strongly that the independent histories of Egypt and Babylon can now be synchronised perfectly at all points of contact with the biblical history of Israel and even earlier dates can be correlated back to before the Great Flood. Chinese dates likewise make sense when compared to the Genesis account. In China it is told that a tremendous flood of devastating force occurred in approximately 2300 B.C. The Chinese sacred book of the Shu-king, translated by W. Gorn Old, speaks of Fu-hi. Notice the similarities to the Genesis record: The Bible Book of Shu-king When Noah emerged from the Ark, God used a rainbow as a sign of his new covenant with the human race. Fu-hi was “born of a rainbow.” (Genesis 9:13-17). Noah saved in the Ark seven of each type of clean animal: from these he offered a sacrifice after the Flood. (Genesis 7:2; 8:20) Fu-hi bred and saved 7 kinds of animals to be used as a sacrifice. Noah was born 600 years before the Flood. (Genesis 7:6) The Epoch of Fu-hi began in 2944 B.C. (600 years before 2344 B.C.)
Earth’s axis tilted
- Eskimos: The earth tilted violently before the Flood began.
- Mexico: “The earth shook to its foundations. The sky sank lower towards the north. The sun, moon and stars changed their motions. The earth fell to pieces, and the waters in its bosom uprushed with violence and overflowed… . The system of the universe was totally disordered. Man had rebelled against the high gods. The sun went into eclipse, the planets altered their courses.” (Harold T. Wilkins, Mysteries of Ancient South America. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, 1974, p.3
- China: The earth tilted violently before the Deluge. The sky suddenly began to fall northward. The heavenly bodies changed their courses after the earth had been shaken.
- Egypt: The earth turned over. (The Harris Papyrus; the Hermitage Papyrus; the Ipuwer Papyrus)
- Greenland (natives): When the Great Flood came, the earth capsized like a boat.
- The Polynesians and Hindus also related this phenomenon.
- Rome (Ovid, the poet): In the great Flood the earth “shivered and shook” as the gods made “ an end to the race of men.” Soon “there was no telling land from sea.”
Underground basins burst forth
- Mexico: The earth fell to pieces and the waters in its bosom uprushed with violence and overflowed. (Compare this with the biblical description: “the fountains of the great deep were broken up.”) (Genesis 7:11)
Volcanic action. Less universal than the Flood legends, though not less striking, are the reports of a Great Fire which swept the earth as part of the great cosmic catastrophe.
Covered the mountains. The Genesis account states: “… and all the high hills, that were under the
whole heaven, were covered… and the mountains were covered.” (Genesis 7:19,20).
- Sumatra (the Battacks): The last human pair were knee-deep atop the highest mountain before the Flood subsided.
- Celebes (the Toradjas): The Flood covered the highest mountain, until the only creatures that escaped were a pregnant woman and a pregnant mouse.
- Peru: A terrific explosion and the world was plunged into darkness. Water rose to the height of the mountains.
- Guatemala (Maya): Amid earthquakes and fiery eruptions, it rained tar with water. Then day became black night. Even the mountains disappeared under water.
- North America (the Athapascan): “Every day it rained, every night it rained… The sky fell, the land was not… The waters of the oceans came together. The waters completely joined everywhere… Trees and grass were not… Human beings and animals alike had been washed away… It was very dark.” (Alfred M. Rehwinkel, The Flood. St.Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House, 1951, pp.131,132) – (Hopi): “Waves higher than mountains rolled in on the land and continents broke asunder and sank beneath the sea.” (Charles Berlitz, Mystery of Atlantis. St. Albans, U.K.: Panther Books, Ltd., 1979, pp.45-48)
- South America (Guarani Indians, east coast): The hero rode on a palm tree till mountains disappeared. Only when the waters touched the sky did the Flood stop. A heavenly bird beat its wings as a sign that the waters were abating.
- China: The waters, “… in their vast extent, over-topped the great heights, threatening the heavens with their floods.” (J.Legge , tr. “Annals of the Bamboo Books” , vol. 3, part 1, of The Chinese Classics. Hong Kong, 1876)
Duration of the Flood: a year
- Romania: Gypsies tell the “tale of the fish”: An old man was warned, “Put your wife and family in a big boat to save yourself, for this rain will continue for a long, long time. Make room in the boat for animals and plants as well, for everything that is touched by the great flood will die. All creatures will die in the flood.” The floods continued to soak the earth for a year. Nothing but sky and water was seen. Even the birds had perished. When the rain stopped and the waters had abated, a full year had passed. When they left the boat, they found a different world waiting. Eternal life was no more. The old civilisation had vanished. Labour and sorrow, sickness and death, were now close. (Compare the biblical dates, showing that the Flood survivors were inside the Ark for a year.) (Genesis 7:11; 8:13,14)
Birds sent out. The Genesis record says: “And the waters decreased continually until the
tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen. And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window… And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. Also he sent forth
a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground; But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. And he stayed yet another seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark; And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. And he stayed yet another seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again to him any more.” (Genesis 8:5-12)
- North America (the Arapaho): The entire planet was covered by water, until Arapaho ordered three ducks to dive down and bring up some dirt, whereupon the waters began to subside.
- Greece: The gods warned of a great flood because of man’s wickedness. A survival boat was built. It ultimately rested on a high mountain, and a dove was sent out twice.
- Cuba: “An old man, knowing the deluge was to come, built a great ship and went into it with his family and abundance of animals; and… wearying during the continuance of the flood, he sent out a crow, which at first did not return, staying to feed on the dead bodies; but afterwards returned bearing with it a green branch.” (Rehwinkel, p.135)
- Mexico: In the universal Flood, only one man saved himself in a spacious vessel with his wife, children, animals and grain. Later he sent out a vulture from the craft. Feeding on the carcasses which covered the earth, it did not return. But a humming bird flew back with a leafy branch. So, aware that vegetation was resprouting, the hero disembarked on a mountain. – another legend even mentions the dove that did not return, because it had found dry ground.
- Chaldea: A history compiled by Berosus, a Chaldean priest, from Chaldean records and traditions relates details of the Great Flood. Xisuthras, the tenth king, was warned in a dream to build a ship, enter with his family and dearest friends, as well as provision it with food and drink, animals and birds. Toward the end of the Flood, in which all men died, he sent out some of the birds. These, finding no food or resting place, returned to the ship. Some days later, he sent them out again; this time they returned with their feel full of clay. The third time he released them, they returned no more. Xisuthras thus learned that the earth was bare. From an opening in the ship’s roof he then saw that it had rested on a mountain. Disembarking, the company raised an altar and sacrificed to the gods. A voice told them that the country where they were was Armenia. Of the ship, portions still remain in the mountains. From the ruins, pilgrims scrape asphalt, which is used as a preservative against magic.
Rainbow seen for the first time. The Genesis account states that God told Noah and his three sons: “I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth… [that] the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh.” (Genesis 9:13-15)
- Hawaii: Finally, after leaving the rainbow as a token of his eternal forgiveness, Kane made the waters subside and told Nu-u and his three sons to repopulate the earth.
- Guatemala: “And the rainbow appeared in the sky signifying that all below had been destroyed” (Mayan Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel)
- Australia: Many Aboriginal tribes have their Flood stories in which many people die, and the Rainbow Serpent is often associated with these Flood myths. In the Aboriginal Dreamtime myths, the serpent has the strange ability to control floods and rain. This stems from his connection with the one world Deluge. The Serpent’ s appendix “Rainbow” certainly suggests that this is correct and automatically dates the creation stories of the Dreamtime with the Great Flood, as no rainbow is known earlier than this event. The rainbow is fairly well represented in most sources of mythology. If the pre-Flood world was watered by a mist, and if this situation prevailed until the time of the Great flood, then the rainbow would be unknown until the first rain fell at the time of the Deluge. Until that event, the meteorological phenomenon of the rainbow was something unprecedented in the skies of our ancient earth. As the rainbow is not mentioned until after the Flood, it is the indelible link and insoluble tie between the events of mythology and the Flood.
Flood traditions (b) A CANNIBAL’S TALE
For centuries travellers avoided the fearful Melanesian islands of the South Pacific, where shipwrecked men were eaten. Of course civilisation had come to the islands and cannibalism was a thing of the past… almost. It was reported that a few newly discovered tribes still ate the flesh of their departed.
One could mention the Samo-Kubo tribe. Deep in the almost impenetrable jungle of western Papua New Guinea lived this hitherto unknown tribe. Yes, they were cannibals. They had almost no contact with the outside world. But, relevant to the subject of our previous chapter, they had preserved in
essence the same biblical Flood story. Here’s how they tell it: Due to someone teasing the lizards, the Lizard Man caused a worldwide Flood, which drowned all except two brothers and a wooden vessel.
The story features animals, a mountain, and the theme that from the survivors of that worldwide Flood came today’ s world population. The tribe’s remoteness and the interweaving of the story with its very
cultural essence appear to ensure that there has been absolutely no contamination from outside sources.
The concept of a Golden Age, or a Paradise World, destroyed in a great disaster, usually described as the work of the gods, is so widespread and deeply rooted in human mythology that it almost appears to be a piece of instinctive knowledge in the collective human subconscious.
There is common agreement among Flood legends on numerous points. Even after allowing for the ultimate embellishment with local colour and culture, the similarity factor between these legends remains remarkably high. We have already noted some of these:
- A favoured family (in 88% of the stories)
- Who were forewarned (in almost every tradition)
- Survival due to a boat (70%)
- Animals also saved (67%)
- The Flood being worldwide (95%)
- The survivors ending up on a mountain (57%) So many of the traditions agree that an animal or bird was sent out to explore. Even the olive leaf is remembered. Some legends recall in striking and precise terms the appearance of the rainbow as a token after the Deluge, a “thanksgiving” sacrifice, and specific reference to the survival of an eight-member family. Sometimes even the number of days it rained coincides, varying from the biblical 40 days to 60 in some American Indian versions. They agree that the Flood was an exceptional cosmic disturbance.
ORIGINATED WITH MISSIONARIES?
The Flood story, as we have noted, is universal. It is known even among out-of-the-way tribes who have had no contact with the outside world – thus could not have acquired it from others. Anti-Flood theorists have objected that missionaries must have been responsible for introducing the Flood story to such remote tribes. And, on the surface, that sounds plausible enough. But then, when you think a little
deeper, a few, straight questions begin to come up. For example, if it was missionaries who brought the Flood story, then why are not other biblical stories also found in the folklore of such tribes? Why not stories like Jonah and the whale, or the biblical destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the parting of the Red Sea and other miraculous stories found in the Bible? And why is it that the only traditions found among isolated tribes are those that relate to the VERY EARLIEST events – namely, creation, the fall of man into sin, the Flood, the Tower of Babel and the confusion of languages? In other words – only those stories said to have occurred before the scattering of man? But NOT those events which occurred
AFTER the scattering of the nations. On the other hand, if the nations and tribes truly began to disperse to remote places ONLY AFTER THESE EVENTS (as the Bible claims) then should we not expect them to have taken with them the memory of these earlier events, which they indeed do hold – but not the knowledge of later events? And another question. If missionaries are responsible for the similarities in Flood accounts, then who or what is responsible for the differences? Differences which include
time-corrupted details like the roused anger of the Lizard Man, distortions which could not have been passed on by anybody knowledgeable of the biblical story. And something else. Missionaries, so it turns out, have in the past never reached all these remote tribes of the world. Even if they had, they certainly would have focused on the Christian gospel rather than concentrating all of their teaching upon the Genesis Flood. In fact, there is on record the experience of a missionary who, relating the story of the Flood, was interrupted by the natives who wanted to tell their version of the same story! The truth is, MOST OF THESE FLOOD TRADITIONS HAVE BEEN GATHERED BY ANTHROPOLOGISTS OR PENNED BY UNBELIEVERS who had no interest in vindicating the biblical account. They have, to their surprise, discovered such traditions in tribes which no missionaries had ever reached.
WHY, THEN, DO THESE TRADITIONS EXIST?
Suppose there were NO FLOOD LEGENDS… could not this very lack of circumstantial evidence be used as a powerful objection to the veracity of the biblical account? On the other hand, if there actually WAS a Flood that destroyed mankind, then worldwide traditions should be EXACTLY what we would expect to find. This much is sure. Peoples all over the world “remember” the Flood. It has left an indelible impression on the memory of the entire human race. In an analytical comparison of all these hundreds of traditions, historical data can be perceived. These worldwide traditions make it crystal clear
that this Great deluge was no mere Mesopotamian Flood. A universal catastrophe MUST HAVE taken place. To deny this is to reject the most ancient and common traditions of universal mankind. The eminent scholar William Wundt, who could never be accused of a biblical bias, and tried his utmost to prove the independent manufacture of the various Flood traditions, was forced to admit: “Of the combination of all these elements into a whole [the destruction of the earth by water, the rescue of a single man and seed of animals by means of a boat, etc.], however, we may say without hesitation, IT COULD NOT HAVE ARISEN TWICE INDEPENDENTLY.” (William Wundt, Elements of
Folk Psychology. New York: Macmillan Company, 1916, p.392). Could it be, then, that every man and woman alive is a direct descendant of the Ark survivors? Could it be that, as they migrated in groups from the landing spot, they carried the memory of this traumatic event?
A UNIFIED CONCEPT AT THE START
Also fresh in their minds was the concept of a Creator who had intervened in human affairs. Research by Oswald O. Tobisch has shown that rock drawings scattered over Asia, Europe, America and Africa are related to each other. (and we can now add Australia to that list. (See Jonathan Gray’s Update International, No. 7, p.15) Tobisch asks in amazement: “Is it possible that once there was a united concept of God on an international scale simply inconceivable to our present way of thinking and
that mankind in those days was still in the ‘field of force’ of the ‘primordial revelation’ of the one and almighty creator, to whom mind and matter, the whole universe with the heavenly bodies and living creatures, were and are subordinate?” (Gray, private files)
THE STORY UNDERGOES CHANGES
Over centuries of separation, the story of man’s common past was adapted to each changing culture, but the essence remained the same. These legends of a worldwide Flood are compelling evidence that the
global catastrophe as recorded in Genesis is ONE OF THE GREATEST FACTS OF ALL HISTORY.
It has been claimed by at least one writer that the Flood legend was unknown to the Egyptians. This raises the question, could this mean that the Flood did not reach Egypt? Sorry, that writer was mistaken. In the ancient papyri, it is recorded that a person called NU was the begetter of the very gods of Egypt. I ask you, how much closer could this be to the biblical Noah? (See the variations of Noah’s name in the preceding chapter). Nu was one of the original EIGHT (8) gods of the Egyptian pantheon. These eight were considered to be gods by having passed through and survived a judgment. They were also considered gods because of their longevity, which their offspring did not inherit to the same extent. Here are the hieroglyphics: Nu is directly connected with the watery mass (note the waves that help to make up his name); from this watery mass the gods came “in the bark” (the Ark?). The eighth member of this company of gods was Set. Set occupied a place in the boat when they came from the waters at the creation (or dawning) of a new age. Set is called “son of Nut”. The Nut would be Noah’s wife, the Nu in the feminine gender, or the goddess who accompanied Nu on the voyage. Nut, as the mother of all living (as was Nu the begetter of the Egyptian gods in the masculine sense), was held in esteem among the gods and remembered as Isis. Interestingly, Shem (Set?) was the son of Noah and his wife. In Hebrew, Shem’ i-nith literally means “the eighth.” (David Fasold, The Discovery of Noah’s
Ark. U.K.: Sidgwick and Jackson Ltd., 1990, pp.16,17, 194,195. E.A. Wallis Budge, The Egyptian Book of the Dead). It would require a struggle not to see here the connection with the Flood as a perceived historical event on the part of the Egyptians.
SOMETHING FOR THE SKEPTIC TO CONSIDER
Who experienced the Great Flood? Certainly all mankind alive at that time. And a handful of them survived to pass on the tale from one generation to another. But later, people refused to accept the accounts as describing a real event and laughed them away as fairy stories. The ancient author – living within a few hundred years of the events he describes (or else even writing as a contemporary) – is far more likely to be in secure possession of the facts than a skeptic of the 21st century who is separated from the event by 4,000 years or more.
GENESIS COMPARED TO OTHER ACCOUNTS
It has been common for critics to “put down” the biblical book of Genesis as a collection of fables copied from other ancient sources. However, internal evidence shows it to be head and shoulders above every other record of the Great Flood.
(a) Not spoiled by “local” colour. For example, whereas many tribes “relocated” their landing place to the nearest high mountain, to add impact to their Flood story, the biblical record did not.
The Genesis account states that the Ark landed “upon the mountains of Ararat.” (Genesis 8:4) This reference to “the mountains of Ararat” is significant, since the Hebrews had no personal knowledge of that distant land. This testifies to the integrity of the biblical account.
(b) Older than other Middle Eastern reports. Critics have tried to establish that the biblical account had no historical authority, but, rather, that it was borrowed from the well-known Babylonian legend. It is commonly asserted that the book of Genesis was written as late as the 6th century B.C.
This view shows an unawareness of the latest modern discoveries. It has now been substantiated that the Bible record is the oldest of the Flood reports of the Middle East. The Bible account includes archaisms which indicate that it preceded the Babylonian and Assyrian versions of the Flood. One of the greatest archaeologists of all time is Professor W.F.Albright. He points out that the archaic features contained in the Genesis record date it before any Mesopotamian version that is “preserved in cuneiform sources”
Babylonian tablet describing the Flood events (such as the Babylonian “Epic of Gilgamesh” and the Assyrian “Epic of Atrahasis” ). (W.F. Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan. London: Athlone Press, 1968, p.86. See also: Clifford Wilson, Crash Go the Chariots. New York: Lancer Books, 1972,
pp.45-51. Wilson, The Chariots Still Crash. Old Tappan, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell and Co., 1976, pp.129-140). Further evidence comes from archaeological sites excavated comparatively recently, such as Ebla in Syria. Tablets from Ebla, dated to 2000 B.C. show records of the past which are parallel to those in early Genesis. These show that the biblical stories did not stem from Babylonian legends originating around 700 B.C.
(c) The purest version. Contrary to what was once claimed, it now turns out that the Bible account
cannot be the second-hand one. It is infinitely superior. The biblical book of Genesis tells a simpler, more coherent story. It does not bear the marks of the superstitious, the magical or the grotesque, which occur in the Babylonian and Assyrian versions. These latter bear the marks of later distortions, clearly inferior to the Genesis account. An example is the specifications of the Ark. The Babylonian/Assyrian
Deluge account gave the ship a rather flat description. In lines 57 through 61, the Gilgamesh Epic states that its floor space was one “ iku”, a measurement which has been translated to mean 3,600 square metres or approximately one acre. It reads, “One iku was its floor space, one hundred and twenty cubits each was the height of its walls; one hundred twenty cubits measured each side of its deck.” This leads to only one conclusion – the boat was an exact cube! This would make it a crudely designed cubic vessel with the tendency to keep turning with each gust of wind as if caught in a gigantic whirlpool.
Contrast that with the description in the book of Genesis. From a point of stability and rolling, its ratio of six to one (300 cubits by 50) is about as perfect as can be desired. Some of the giant tankers have a ratio of 7:1. In modern engineering terms, the Genesis specifications are of perfect proportions; in this they bear the stamp of an accurate transmission of up to-date sophistication. (We shall see evidence of this in a later chapter). Something else. The Genesis account contains a detailed family genealogy
extending from the time of the Flood down to the historical Moses. And this leads me to ask, is it not fully consistent to hold that a family tenacious enough of its traditions to preserve its genealogy from Shem to Moses, could have handed down its own account of so memorable an event? Notice what some other researchers have discovered. Kenneth Kitchen of the University of Liverpool, comments: “The common assumption that the Hebrew account is simply a purged and simplified version of the Babylonian legend (applied to Flood stories) is fallacious on methodological grounds. In the Ancient Near East, the rule is that simple accounts or traditions may give rise (by accretion and embellishment) to elaborate legends, but not vice versa. In the Ancient Orient, legends were not simplified or turned into pseudo-history (historicized) as has been assumed for early Genesis.”(Kenneth A. Kitchen, Ancient Orient and the Old Testament, p.89) La Haye and Morris concur: “It almost goes without saying that the beautiful story handed down, likely in written form, from Noah through the patriarchal line, finally
to be incorporated into the book of Genesis by Moses, stands in a class by itself when compared with other versions for meaningful transmission of information. If the universal law of cause and effect
has any meaning at all – that is, that the effect cannot be greater than its cause – then there can be no doubt that the less accomplished writings and tales of secular historians are merely corruptions of the
original and meaningful Genesis story.” (Tim La Haye and John Morris, The Ark on Ararat, pp.232,233) Between the Gilgamesh Epic and the Bible account, there are a number of important differences. Alexander Heidel has carefully analysed these. He concludes that even though there are definite similarities, these areas of agreement are apparently caused by the two stories having been based on the same event, NOT the same account. (Alexander Heidel, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament, pp.224-258)
It seems strange that the tradition of a Flood would last for so long among so many diverse nations of the world, if it were not based on an actual event. There have been many floods on this planet and most of the stories associated with them are soon vanished. But the central theme of the worldwide Flood has survived, leading us to suspect its authenticity. LOGICALLY, IT BOILS DOWN TO THIS: THE BIBLICAL FLOOD RECORD CAN BE ACCEPTED BY INTELLIGENT PEOPLE, SO LONG AS THEY BELIEVE THE BASIC FACT OF A CREATOR WHO WOULD INTERVENE IN THE AFFAIRS OF HIS CREATURES.
FLOOD TRADITIONS – Summary
DEEPLY-ROOTED The destruction of well-nigh the whole human race, in the remote past, by a Great Flood, was known to all peoples of antiquity. Hundreds of Great Flood traditions have survived. These are from widely separated parts of the world that were not in communication with one another within historical times.
COMMON AGREEMENT On the essential facts of the catastrophe, there is almost total agreement among all races everywhere. From the combination of elements in each legend it soon becomes clear
that the same story in its details could not have arisen twice independently.
DIFFERENCES Nevertheless, the traditions are just enough dissimilar to offer convincing proof of a shared memory – before the original dispersion.
THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT COMPARED Archaisms in the biblical record (as found in the book of Genesis) establish it as the oldest of the Great Flood reports of the Middle East. Another significant comparison: it is remarkably free of the embellishments which mar the other Flood records. Hence the Genesis account can be considered a meaningful transmission of information concerning the event.
A REAL EVENT The worldwide persistence of traditions concerning the Great Flood of the Bible leads us to judge the Bible record as authentic. It also suggests that the great Flood is one of the greatest facts of all history.
Worldwide flood (a) THE FLOOD THAT NEVER REALLY WENT AWAY
JUST A LOCAL FLOOD?
These were the questions:
1. Why would Noah spend more than a century building a vessel just to escape a local flood? Why couldn’t he just move?
2. If it were only a local flood, then why would Noah spend a century of planning and toiling, in constructing a huge ship to accommodate two of every known species to escape it? Could not those animals have been led out of the doomed valley to the nearest hills as easily as they were led to the Ark?
3. Even if all the animals in the Euphrates valley were destroyed, were there not enough outside the valley to perpetuate their species?
4. Why were birds taken into the Ark? Are we to be so credulous as to believe that birds would not be able to fly away from the rising waters of a single valley?
5. Does it not border on the ridiculous that Noah should be divinely commanded to build a boat nearly half the length of the “Queen Mary” simple to float up and down that one flooded valley?
6. Could Noah have been so ignorant of the topography of south western Asia as to think that the Flood covered all the high mountains “under the whole heaven” when, as a matter of fact, it covered only a few foothills? The double statement “all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered” (Genesis 7:19) is practically equivalent to a Hebrew superlative. It leaves no doubt that the writer is saying that the Flood covered the earth’s entire surface.
7. The Bible says that water covered the planet for 150 days, and took a further 7 months to subside sufficiently for dry land to appear. (Genesis 7:24; 8:13; – compare 7:11) Even if the mountains were only hundreds of feet high, a twelve month flood could not pile up and remain in one local spot. Wouldn’t gravity cause the water to find its own level and cover the whole earth?
8. If the Ark finally landed thousands of feet up in the mountains of Ararat, as the story says, how could that happen in a mere local flood?
9. The stated purpose of the Flood was to wipe out a degenerate race. The entire human race outside the Ark was to be destroyed. (Genesis 6:5-7, 11-13) Their sin was not regional, but universal. The race was so utterly corrupt morally, and of all mankind only a handful were to be spared because they did not go along with the great sin drift. The Bible record is emphatic that Noah and his family were the only ones
to escape. (Genesis 6:17,18; 7:23; 9:19; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5; Luke 17:27) “All flesh… under heaven… every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.” Destroying only a local portion of the race by a local flood – how would that have served the stated purpose?
10. According the record, God told Noah, “I will destroy them with the earth.” (Genesis 6:13) Another passage says that “the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished.” (2 Peter 3:6) If not only all men, but the earth also were to be destroyed, wouldn’t the Flood obviously have to cover the earth?
11. According to Genesis, God promised there would be “no more such a flood again.” (Genesis 9:11,15) So if Noah’ s was only a local flood, then how do we explain all the other “local” floods that have occurred since? Millions have perished in vast and destructive local floods in many parts of the earth. For example, the aftermath of the 1883 Krakatoa explosion caused flood waters which destroyed 300 towns and villages with 36,380 people. Those flood waters rose 120 feet high. The 1876 Gulf of Bengal hurricane aftermath would have to be called a deluge. A flood wave 35 feet high swept across 141 square miles of land, drowning 215,000 people. After the Thera disaster about 1470 B.C., which swept across Mediterranean countries, Moses would have had to record that God had broken His word.
… UNLESS THERE WAS ONLY ONE GREAT FLOOD. AND THERE HAS BEEN NOTHING LIKE IT SINCE. The whole Genesis account becomes ABSURD if the Deluge was not worldwide.
PERHAPS THEY THOUGHT THEY WERE THE SOLE SURVIVORS?
Floods happened so frequently in Mesopotamia that one has the clear impression of a society that had come to terms with them, rather than regarding them as something so special that they gave the survivors the impression that they were the only beings left on earth. This Flood of Noah was SOMETHING DIFFERENT. “Legends of a Flood that had swept over the WHOLE world, covering hills and even mountains – these legends are distributed worldwide. Ancient peoples must have been as vulnerable to tropical storms, snowstorms, tornadoes and other seasonable disturbances as are we. Surely they would not have been impressed by the mere overflow of a river to such a degree as to carry their experience to all parts of the world as the story of a cosmic upheaval.”
NOT ENOUGH WATER FOR A GLOBAL FLOOD?
Let’s start with the ice stored on top of Greenland and Antarctica, if only those two masses were released, the sea would rise by 150 feet. That would drown thousands of towns and cities, but not the mountains. You still don’t have enough water. Now, about 71 percent of our globe is covered by water and 29 percent is dry land. The area of the Pacific Ocean alone is nearly 10 million square miles greater than ALL the continents and islands added together. The average depth of the ocean is 13,000 feet –
and the average height of the land is only 2,300 feet, so the ocean is, on average, 5½ times deeper than the land is high. That means there is about 18 times more water below sea level than there is dry land above it. If all the land now above the sea were dumped into the ocean depths, it would fill only one eighteenth of the oceans. Sea water volume is 18 times land volume. Again, if all the land were smoothed out (no mountains, no ocean basins), the water would completely cover it to a depth of 1½ miles – 7,800 feet of water over the entire surface of the earth. It’s an established fact that most of the earth’s mountains are of recent formation – in historical times, that is. (See the third book in this series of three, The Corpse Came Back.) So very likely, the pre-Flood mountains were not as high as today.
It is also agreed that sea beds can rise and continents sink. This being so there is no difficulty whatever in finding enough water, even for a universal flood. (See an article by Lt. Col. Davies, in Journal of Transactions of the Victoria Institute. London, 1930, p.95)
SOURCES OF THE GLOBAL FLOOD WATERS
The water which produced the global Flood originated from THREE SOURCES.
1. Underground basins. Huge amounts of water were locked under the earth’s crust. These were
“broken up” as the Deluge began. (Genesis 7:11). According to tests, “there is an additional, virtually inexhaustible supply of ‘primary’ water that is independent of rainfall. Like the geologists’ juvenile water, it comes from the depths of the earth. Carried along underground channels, natural pressure forces it upwards towards the surface of the ground, often in places impossible to predict by geological
methods. Dowsers perceive this water as flowing through a vast network of vein-like faults in rock, occasionally rising even to the tops of hills in natural pipes, and then spreading out in a dome like the spokes of an umbrella. In conventional geology books, there is nothing to support this. Nevertheless, inexplicable sources of water have occasionally been noted. (Francis Hitching, World Atlas of Mysteries. London: Pan Books, Ltd., 1978, p.95) To their surprise, scientists drilling the world’ s deepest well near Kola in northern Russia found deep underground large open channels filled with
hot, mineral-rich water. (World Book of Science. Year 1987, art. “ The World’ s Deepest Well” , pp.206-207)
2. Thousands of volcanoes. When the earth’ s crust was suddenly shattered (see the second book of this series), perhaps as many as 30,000 volcanoes erupted in unison, each giving off millions of gallons of water a day. Volcanoes expel water vapour as well as cinders.
3. Water canopy. An antediluvian water canopy enveloping the earth (see Chapter 3) was
precipitated at the time of the Deluge. It contained enough water to cascade as torrential rain over the whole earth for six weeks non-stop. It was at this time that these waters entered our present oceans.
This thermal water blanket exists no longer. The great masses of waters which destroyed the world are still lying in the depths of the expanded ocean.
MOST OF THE EARTH STILL FLOODED
The Flood waters never totally went away. Before the Great Flood, the proportion of land area to water area was larger, perhaps very much larger, than now. At some time in the past, much of the present sea bottom was dry land. Late during the Flood, the crust of the earth was pushed up, raising land and pushing wider the ocean bed to receive the run-off water. This water covers large areas that, before the Great Flood, were land. So it may be said that the waters of the Flood still lie over large portions of the earth
FOSSILS SHOW SOMETHING ELSE
The fossil facts does not show a progressive development of life forms from simple to complex, as the evolution theory leads us to expect. Not at all! As says Stephen Jay Gould, Professor of Geology and Paleontology, Harvard University, “The evolutionary trees that adorn our textbooks have
data only at the tips and nodes of their branches; the rest is inference, however reasonable, not the evidence of fossils.” (“Evolution’s erratic pace”, Natural History, Vol. LXXXVI – 5- May 1977, p.14)
The fossils buried in the planet’s surface showed SOMETHING ELSE. (And just what they do show will be investigated in Book 2 of this series, Surprise Witness.)
IF A GLOBAL FLOOD DID OCCUR…
1. Traditions If a global Flood did occur, there should be many cultural traditions of the flood story. There are.
2. Sediments If a global Flood did occur, we should expect thick water-laid sediments to form most of the surface crust of the earth’s land area. And they do. Sedimentary rock is WATER-LAID ROCK – laid by silt deposition as moving waters slow down. Of the earth’s land surface, 75 percent is covered by sedimentary rock. Which means that the major factor in the formation of the present surface of the earth has been water movement ON A GLOBAL SCALE. Do you get that? The very structure of the rock strata reveals that the earth’ s surface must have been torn up for miles down and relaid by the action of water. In some places there is evidence that it occurred as far as ten miles down! The earth’s crust has been CHURNED into a mass of water, vegetation, animal life and rubble. This is prima facie evidence that the entire surface of the earth has, indeed, been under water fairly recently. And something else. Professor M.E. Clark, University of Illinois, and Dr. Henry Voss have formulated a model which shows the global sedimentary context formed by the effect of the moon on the waters of a theoretical global Flood. The academic impact is this: There is evidence of a global Flood – and there is a global association in the laminated layers of sedimentary rock. There is intercontinental linking evidence which shows a global Flood occurred before the continents were separated.
3. Mountains covered If a global Flood did occur, we should find evidence on mountain tops. We do.
The fact that sedimentary rock covers not only the lowlands, but also the mountain peaks, shows that not only was the water movement global, but that it also extended above the tops of the mountain ranges. And crests of mountains contain marine fossils. Evidently the mountains were once under water.
4. Rapidly buried remains If a global Flood did occur, there should be buried remains of all manner of life forms found mixed up in the sedimentary layers. There are. All over the earth are extensive fossil graveyards which show evidence of sudden catastrophic burial and rapid lithification. To put it simply, rapid, violent burial and fast turning to stone. The uncovering of death pits of all types of animals (land and sea animals MIXED TOGETHER) in areas throughout the earth points not to a local but a general event.
5. Human relics buried at all levels If a global Flood occurred, we should find so-called “higher animal” skeletons (including man) at many different depths in the flood-produced rocks. We do. (See the astonishing evidence in Book 2 of this series)
COULD SUCH PHENOMENA HAVE BEEN CAUSED BY A SERIES OF LOCAL FLOODS?
The following six phenomena raise interesting questions:
1. Pressure and force Today, local floods are not known to be able to generate the type of tremendous pressure and force necessary to fossilise creatures in rock.
2. Grand Canyon The majestic Grand Canyon, with strata clearly laid down by water force, and packed with millions of fossils, is too gigantic for its cause to have been a local flood. On that point, there is compelling evidence that the strata of the Grand Canyon was clearly laid down by water force. That the Grand Canyon sandstone containing footprints was not deposited by wind, but by a catastrophic event involving water on a grand scale. (Andrew Snelling, B.Sc. (Hons), Ph.D. (Geology) and Steven Austin, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. (geology), in “Startling Evidence for Noah’ s Flood.”, Creation Ex Nihilo, vol.15, no.1, Dec.1992-Feb.1993, pp.47-50) There will be more on this subject in the 3rd book of this series.
3. No worldwide inter-face There is no worldwide surface between any two geological formations.
Popular theory teaches that the land received its carcasses then sank under the sea for deposits of silt, etcetra, to bury them. After this, it arose to become land again. This cycle was repeated many times and each time a new layer formed. When an uplift raises the local sediments above water level, depositing stops. The soil build-up resumes and erosion begins. And this becomes a time gap – or an “inter-face” between two periods of sediment deposition. BUT!!! There is no such worldwide inter-face, except at one spot – the very bottom of the strata pile. Thus there is evidence of no worldwide time gaps. Instead, the whole column (pile) of sediment layers (laid by water) is continuous from bottom to top. NOW! Combine this with the fact that every layer in the column was formed rapidly and catastrophically.
THIS MEANS THAT the entire worldwide column of layers with its fossils was formed RAPIDLY AND IN QUICK SUCCESSION, layer upon layer. Our pet theories need to be overhauled! Yes, it is true that there exist many local unconformities in local geological sites, but it is now known that there is no worldwide unconformity, except, as we noted, at the very bottom of the column. The evidence that each layer was formed rapidly is derived from the fact that a single fossil may penetrate through several layers. Often such a fossil is well preserved. Which means the sediment layers formed around it
rapidly, before decomposition could take place.)
4. Coal beds Everyone knows how coal seams form. Trees grow in a swamp, die, fall over, and are buried by sediments, finally turning into coal, right? Wrong! Coal seams do not form that way.
There is no way that the vast coal beds on earth could have been laid down that way. For example, in Australia there is a continuous coal seam from south of Wollongong, in New South Wales, to north of Brisbane in Queensland. This seam is 800 miles (1,250 kilometres) long, and up to 200 miles wide
and very thick. Some swamp! Trouble is, most of the trees in this coal seam are conifers, in other words, pine trees. When is the last time you saw a pine tree growing in a swamp? Pine trees do not grow in swamps. Nor can a mere local flood explain it. We’ re looking here at 1,250 kilometres of forest catastrophically buried by water! What kind of local catastrophe could explain sudden burial on that sort of scale? (Bearing in mind that professional coal geologists today would acknowledge that coal had to form by rapid burial.)
5. Pillow lava In the lava rocks of the earth’s strata are “pillows” – clear evidence that the volcanic layers were formed under water.
6. High water-level marks All over the world are marks of a former high water level in lakes and rivers – ancient high beaches and high river terraces. These testify to the time when a flooded planet was being marked by a receding flood level, as the waters drained back into the newly enlarged ocean basins. There are indications of enormous, canyon-cutting flow-offs through the soft, flood-laid strata.
Every modern river is an “under-fit” stream, far too small to have produced its own canyon and valley sections or the extensive beds of alluvium through which it flows. Practically all the earth’s crust consists of sediments or sedimentary rocks obviously laid down under moving water (except for the few formed by ice or wind after the sedimentaries). This indicates that the whole surface of the earth has been under water fairly recently. In fact, 70 percent of the earth’s surface is still under water. Even the mountain ranges are known to have been uplifted recently, geologically speaking.
The argument that 33 different Noah’s Floods would be needed to produce our known coal beds, will be answered in Book 2 of this series: Surprise Witness”.
The Great Flood… We are speaking of an event that encompassed volcanic and tectonic activity on an unprecedented scale; as well as tidal waves, hurricanes, continents splitting apart and ocean basins enlarging. Virtually every geological feature on earth was shaped by this interlinked complex of catastrophes. It can be argued that the facts of geology (as distinct from certain interpretations of the facts) attest to a worldwide flood of water. Earth’s scars speak of a catastrophe which is big enough to call our whole evolutionary theory into question. The truth is, no single explanation except a global Flood can adequately explain all the geological phenomena. EVERY SQUARE FOOT of the earth’s surface must have been profoundly altered. You and I today are witnesses that Planet Earth’s original mild topography and pleasant climate has been replaced by vast oceans, rugged terrains and violent climates. As Sylvia Baker puts it: “How lightly we view the Flood! Yet the events of that year affect us still today. The whole climate of the earth was altered; the volcanic and earthquake activity that persists today began then. Man’s life span was reduced to one tenth of its former span.” (Sylvia Baker, M.Sc., Bone of Contention. Sunnybank, Queensland, Australia: Creation Science Foundation Ltd., 1986, p.32)
A WORLDWIDE FLOOD – Summary
EVIDENCES FOR A GLOBAL FLOOD Evidence for a global Flood comes from the many cultural traditions of the Flood, as well as from the very structure of the planet’s crust: water-laid sediments over 75 percent of its surface; the presence of marine fossils on the crests of mountains; and the fossil graveyards all over the world in which land and sea animals are MIXED UP TOGETHER. Additionally, human relics are found in all so-called “ages” [plainly only layers] of strata. ONE FLOOD OR MANY LOCAL FLOODS? A series of local floods could not have produced the features seen today in the earth’ s crust. Only a global Flood can adequately explain all the geological phenomena.
UNPARALLELED VIOLENCE We are talking about an event that encompassed volcanic and tectonic activity on an unprecedented scale; simultaneous tidal waves, hurricanes, continents splitting apart and ocean basins forming. Every square foot of the earth’s surface must have been profoundly altered. The events of that year affect us still today. The whole climate of the earth was altered; the volcanic and earthquake activity that persists today began then. Man’s life span was reduced to one tenth of its
former span. Our lives are so different today – SIMPLY BECAUSE THAT EVENT OCCURRED!
Noah’s Ark questions.
NO ROOM FOR ERROR
“Even God could not sink her,” it was said in typical shallow human arrogance. But, after the Titanic went to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, taking about 1,500 to their death, it was believed that an iceberg had ripped open her side. Decades would pass before the wreck was located, broken in two, on the seafloor. Then it was discovered that she did not go When the passenger liner struck a floating object (the iceberg), the stress was such that rivets holding the hull together popped out, allowing the
water to pour in. The ship broke apart and sank two miles down to the seabed in two large sections. These sections were discovered lying 600 metres (2,000 feet) apart. After an analysis, United States maritime experts concluded that the Titanic sank because the hull’ s metal plates were constructed of low-grade steel that was made brittle by the cold waters of the Atlantic. The result was extensive fracturing, which hastened the sinking of the gigantic vessel. The analysis suggests that the rumbles and roars heard by survivors on the night of the sinking were caused not so much by shifting gear and boiler
explosions as by the fracturing of huge amounts of brittle steel. When cooled and stressed, some types of relatively primitive steel fracture much like glass rather than bending or stretching as ductile materials do. The early super tankers, which came into service during the 1960s, were designed as if they were only half or a quarter the actual size. This led to gross miscalculation of the stresses involved – and ship after ship cracked and broke up in heavy seas.
And now, in the twenty-first century, this is still occurring But back now to a very ancient vessel – Noah’s ship. .. attended by a screaming hurricane, gigantic tsunamis swept from pole to pole. The surface of the entire globe became as a giant maelstrom, in which continents and seas were churned up together. Outside the survival vessel, man ceased to exist. While the turbulent convulsions of the Deluge raged around the Ark, inside this stronghold existed another world all its own. For months it floundered on swirling currents, providing shelter and refuge for eight people and representative animal life. When he built his ark, Captain Noah had just one chance to get it right. There was no opportunity to test it. If anything had gone wrong, if the stresses had been miscalculated, then that was it! No more human race. Every living thing on this planet was locked up inside that vessel. If the rivets had popped out, if the vessel had broken its back, we were all finished. There was no room for error…
JUST A SMALL, HELPLESS BOAT?
How could all the animals fit into such a boat? The question here is whether you are thinking of a cartoon you’ve seen or are you thinking intelligently with the information given in the Bible as the Word of God? According to Genesis the Ark was 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide and 30 cubits high. It also had three decks. (Genesis 6:15-16) It was, if you calculate it out, longer than a football field. That’s enormous. At 20.6 inches to the ancient cubit (excluding the fact that they were probably giants!), it was 515 feet (158 metres) long! “You work it out. That vessel displaced something like 32,000 tons or more. Do you know, it would take a freight train three miles long to provide the same cubic space?
TOO MANY SPECIES OF ANIMALS TO FIT IN?
How many types of animals are there? Refer to Ernst Mayr, probably the leading American taxonomist. Mayr lists 1,072,300 animal species. (Principles of Systematic Zoology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969, pp.11,12) Sixty percent are sea animals and of the rest seven out of ten are insects. There are less than 20,000 species of land animals (mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibians) living today, with a much smaller number of extinct species known from the fossils. Of course, only the representative types would need to be preserved. Take, for example, today’s almost endless varieties of pigeons. If they are
allowed to breed together, they go back to the rock pigeon. Thus, if there was just one pair of rock pigeons in the Ark, there were thousands of varieties potentially preserved. The same is true of the dog and every other separate group. Just the basic type needed to be preserved, not every variety within that type. Now consider that the average size of all mammals is about that of a house cat. Using only 41 percent of available space, all the animals could have been stored in the Ark. And remember, most animals could have been placed in cages and stacked in tiers. The real question is, What did Noah do with all that spare room?
WHAT ABOUT HUGE MONSTERS LIKE DINOSAURS?
In order to preserve an oak tree, would you need to take a fully grown oak into the Ark? Surely an
acorn would have sufficed? Well, why not with animal specimens, too? Bearing in mind the purpose for preserving them, young, healthy ones were undoubtedly selected, rather than the largest of each species.
As far as plants were concerned, we may reasonably assume that apart from perhaps a favourite rose bush or two, as well as choice garden and field crops, no plant passengers were taken on board. The whole plant realm had to survive the Flood fury as best as it could outside the Ark.”
UNABLE IN ANCIENT TIMES TO BUILD SUCH A LARGE VESSEL?
Large ships are a modern a modern thing. Recent centuries ago shipbuilding techniques were comparatively basic, with size limited, and we have assumed this was always so. The evolution theory teaches us that there was a steady, uninterrupted progression from a primitive state to the sophistication of today but this can’t be so. Medieval Europe was so ‘benighted’ in nautical skill that, as Harvard professor Barry Fell observes, ‘Columbus’ whole expedition could mount only 88 men, carried on three vessels of which two were only 50 feet in length, about the size of a small Boston fishing boat. Contrast that with the Pharaohs of the Ramesside dynasty, 1200 B.C., who could mount expeditions of 10,000 miners across the Indian Ocean.’ (Barry Fell, America B.C. London: Wildwood House Ltd., 1978, p.110).
Ocean going vessels of the ancient Greeks were up to 600 feet long and could carry crews of 600. Egyptian open sea ships were as long as 350 feet, with as many as four decks. There were ancient
luxury vessels containing temples and swimming pools, with dining halls of marble and alabaster, and modern plumbing. It seems our earliest ancestors were more capable than their successors. Only one thing can explain the high level of civilisation at the beginning. Those earliest cultures got their heritage basically from the world that was wiped out in the Deluge. They continued where the generation of the biblical Noah left off. Ultimately these civilisations entered into decline and gradually the original knowledge was lost. And with the onset of the Dark Ages, the world forgot its past. There can be little doubt that the technology of the antediluvians (those pre-Flood people) was quite able to produce a vessel of 32,525 tons, or 515 feet in length.
Why was the arc made of wood? Why not of iron or steel? The pre-Flood world had a free abundance
of superior timber. The major reason why our largest modern vessels are not fashioned from wood is not because of our advanced technology, but due to the limitation of size imposed by timber – Encyclopaedia Brittanica, art.: “Ship Design and Construction” , Vol.16, p.689. 1982. Wood is also renewable and is available at relatively low cost, and has such a variety of structural, ornamental, aesthetic, insulating, and chemical properties, wood is considered by many mid-20th century observers to be the most important raw material of the future, exceeding even the metals, oils, and rubber.”(Nelson C. Brown, Encyclopedia Americana, art.: “Wood” , Vol.29, p.116, 1983). Wood endures sometimes better than metal if treated correctly (remember that much of our ancestral knowledge has gone lost).
Just suppose it was intended that the Ark should endure not merely through the brief period of the Deluge, but for posterity, then wood was the only material to use. As the tangible link between the original pre-Deluge world and our own, might it not be too valuable a monument to be destroyed?
If the Ark was older say, than the Pyramids, might not its preservation and eventual discovery constitute the grand climax of all archaeological finds? It is reasonable that the builders had such preservation in mind. As to the ability to utilise metal, it should perhaps be noted that, 600 years before the Deluge, metal-working was already a science. (See our book Dead Men’ s Secrets, p.10.). As Genesis records: “To Lamech’ s other wife, Zillah, was born Tubalcain. He opened the first foundry forging instruments of bronze and iron.” (Genesis 4:22, The Living Bible. London: Coverdale House Publishers, 1974)
It took our civilisation about 600 years to develop from gunpowder and printing to nuclear physics and computers. How far, do you suppose, must the antediluvians, in a similar period of time- from Tubalcain to Noah – have advanced, before the Deluge struck?
NO PRIOR SEA TRIALS?
How could Noah have built a boat on dry land that would be able to withstand such a tempest as this Deluge without prior experience of even storms? In modern times, large vessels that have undergone stringent preliminary tests, have later succumbed to storms. Modern maritime engineers have subjected the claimed dimensions of Noah’s Ark to critical tests and have come up with results which are startling. During World War I, after a ship broke apart, certain engineers went to the Bible to ascertain the Ark’ s dimensions. The result? They built the Aquatania.
Remember, Noah lived over 4,000 years ago. Until his day, according to Genesis, there had not been any mighty storms. Isn’t it remarkable, then, that Noah built a ship, which, according to today’s knowledge, was of the best possible dimensions to survive a storm? And this, not knowing what a storm was! There was NO ROOM FOR ERROR. There could be NO SECOND CHANCE. A statement by shipbuilding researcher J.W. Rich. Says that a number of incidents had “convinced marine architects
that a wooden vessel could not with safety be built longer than 525 feet”. He went on to say that “Noah’s Ark was just that length.” Then this question was raised, “Was that just a coincidence, or does it reveal a scientific background in shipbuilding? To be properly waterborne the Ark represents the largest possible construction that might with safety go to sea. To be made larger is to be structurally weak, due to the requirements to be met in bridging the waves where the vessel would otherwise be uniformly buoyed. A wood vessel of larger dimension would be unable long to withstand the strain to which it would be subject at sea.” (Violet Cummings, Has Anyone Really Seen Noah’s Ark? San Diego, Calif.: Creation-Life Publishers, 1982, p.224). How else could Noah be aware of this other than through impartation by God the Creator? Hear what Jesus (of John 1:1-4; Col 1:13-22) said in Mt. 4:24.
WHAT ABOUT STABILITY? Wouldn’t this greatest of tempests have capsized it?
The Ark would surely have been in danger of capsizing as tidal waves moved rapidly back and forth across the earth. Those inside could not have survived such conditions for a year in an ordinary boat.
The Ark had to be invincible. It would have to endure the roughest, most violent sea storms that would ever strike this planet. Any modern typhoon would be like a child’s breath compared to this year-long nightmare. The Ark’s ratio of 6 x 1 (300 cubits by 50) is, from the point of view of stability and rolling, about as perfect as can be desired. In fact, ship builders have recognised this. In 1844, the shipbuilder I.K. Brunel, in this quest for the ultimate in passenger comfort, designed the ocean liner Great Britain. Its proportions (522 by 51 by 32½ feet) were almost identical to those of the Ark! Interestingly, Noah’s was the first of its kind – perfect, first hit! – while Brunel had all the accumulated knowledge of shipbuilding expertise upon which to draw. And yet this could not give him a ratio more perfect than
that of Noah’s Ark. After thousands of years of experience, engineers acknowledge these measurements to be perfect. Then there was George Dickie, a Scottish architect and a graduate of the University of Edinburgh. He was drawing plans for a ship, when a newspaper article was drawn to his attention. The writer was ridiculing the story of Noah’s Ark. Dickie consulted the Genesis record. And to his surprise, the Ark’s dimensions were similar to those in his own plans. Except for the fact that his dimensions were for a ship just one-seventh smaller than the Ark, the specifications were identical. From Dickie’s plans, the Union Iron Works of San Francisco constructed the well-known battleship Oregon. As a flagship of the U.S. navy, it led convoys, visited almost every notable port of the world and met every test of seaworthiness, including a fierce typhoon. A statement by the editor of the Los Angeles Times, referring to the Oregon. It said: “One of the surprising facts of history is that it took 2,000 years for the
science of marine engineering to develop the highest type of sea-going craft, when the secrets of the true dimensions for the greatest carrying power, combined with the least resistance of the waves, rested all that time in the Book of Genesis.”
While attending the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, veteran newsman Rene Noorbergen came across a manuscript which mentioned a Dutch merchant by the name of Pieter Jansen. He reports:
“In the beginning of the seventeenth century, he commissioned a shipyard to build a scale model of the ark according to the measurements given in the book of Genesis. His scale model is reported to have been 120 feet long, twenty feet wide, and twelve feet high. It proved not only more seaworthy than contemporary vessels, but its gross tonnage was one-third larger than ships built to more modern designs”. (Rene Noorbergen, The Ark File, pp.74-75. Mountain View, California: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1974). But it’ s not just Brunel’s, Dickie’ s or Jansen’s ships. Many modern day vessels, from warships to racing sail boats, are built to design specifications similar to those of the Ark.
The eruption of Indonesia’s Mount Krakatoa in 1883 created tidal waves 100 feet high on shorelines one-third of the way around the world, but on the ocean they measured only inches in height? That’s right. Tidal waves become dangerous only when approaching land mass and are quite survivable in the
open sea. In any case, the Ark’s 515 foot length would ensure that the vessel was not subjected to any wave of equal magnitude acting throughout its entire length. This would lessen the likelihood of capsizing. And the cross-section measurement is very significant. For any degree of tilt up to 90 degrees, the Ark would tend to right itself. It seems to have been built in the expectation that waves were to roll over the top for most of the time. It was engineered to wallow in the sea like a log. Even a tidal wave could not have sunk the Ark. So it appears that the story of the Ark is both mathematically and hydrodynamically perfectly feasible.”
CONVINCING THE ANIMALS
How could Noah have gathered all those animals for the Ark from all over the world while building the
Ark at the same time? Noah and his helpers only needed to preserve the basic types, not the whole range of varieties within those types. Did Noah really have to drive a pair of skunks into a box – trying to manipulate the box, wield a stick and hold his nose, all at the same time? The book of Genesis says other forces were operating. The animals instinctively came to the Ark, perhaps through some intuition of the approaching catastrophe; or perhaps an Almighty Creator is capable of intervening here for the purpose of His deluge to follow? Experts have noted that many animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) possess the ability to even sense imminent danger. They instinctively leave areas due for an earthquake, an eruption or other natural disaster such as a tsunami.
The combination of events we are talking about – how could they have been anything less than a
miracle? If the event occurred, then it seems to me it was masterminded, engineered and controlled from the start. This outside interaction and control by Intelligence did not occur by chance.
KANGAROOS, POLAR BEARS, ETC.: TOO FAR TO TRAVEL?
Surely it would be impossible for animals to come to one single spot from everywhere on earth? What about the kangaroo in Australia, cut off by a vast ocean? And the polar bear… and the animals from South America?” The worldwide uniformity of the pre-Flood climate meant that all types of animals would have been available in special niches all around the globe, and thus available in close proximity to the Ark, as well. And there were no vast stretches of water cutting off land areas. If all the main lands were at one time joined together, as many scientists envisage, travel would have been no problem either. The human race was given 120 years’ probation. So even if not all animals lived nearby, they had adequate time to migrate. In recent times, large migrations of animals over great distances have been known to occur. No problem, the implanted instinct by which the animals migrated to the Ark might have been operative for even a few generations (offspring).
What an horrendous task, caring for and feeding so many animals for a whole year in the Ark! What about the feeding of the carnivores? Could even rabbits have bred fast enough to provide adequate sustenance for the tigers? This was obviously all worked out ahead of time. They had to survive a year in the Ark, then repopulate the earth. So they would be young and relatively small and docile. In such a time of stress they would feed less and sleep more. It is also likely that many, if not most, of the animals spent most of the year in a state of relative dormancy. So they would require a minimum of
care. An animal can, by suspending or retarding his natural functions, survive at length during times of dire stress or hardship. Hibernation and estivation occur in every group of vertebrates except birds. (W.P. Pycraft, Encyclopaedia Brittanica, art. “Hibernation”, 1956, p.539). And fundamentally, even birds have been seen to possess this latent capacity.
[By the way, on that subject I’ll share with you an amazing story. You’ll find it in the Appendix.]
Many scientists admit that this mechanism is still a mystery. To cite one authority, Marston Bates, of the Rockefeller Foundation: “Our knowledge of this mechanism is very incomplete, perhaps because it represents a field on the border line between physiology and ecology and is consequently neglected by both sciences. Various theories have been proposed to account for hibernation, and it seems likely that the controlling stimuli may vary with different animals.” (Marston Bates, “Hibernation”, article in Collier’s Encyclopedia, 1956, Vol. 7, p.11). Who knows? Perhaps the lowering of the animals’ metabolic rates was accomplished by artificial means, using the scientific knowledge possessed by Noah’s family.
HOW DID HE KNOW?
1. HOW DID NOAH KNOW THE FLOOD WAS COMING – SOMANY YEARS BEFORE?
No long-term warning has preceded other so-called ‘deluges’ in history, or, more correctly, locally limited natural catastrophes, whether from the Mount St Helens eruption, or the Tokyo earthquake, or whatever. Now, the Flood of Noah was a catastrophe beyond our wildest imagination. The watery destruction of this planet’s surface was so total that nothing on land could have survived. My point is this: on this one occasion, if there had been no long term warning, no time to prepare, clearly there could have been no survivors – and you and I would not be here now. The human race could never have survived such a cosmic event WITHOUT some form of protection such as the Ark provided. What is more, preparation of this floating survival vessel could have been possible only as a result of LONG TERM ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE of the event. Preparation took a lot of time. So here’ s my question again: HOW DID HE KNOW IT WAS COMING, SO MANY DECADES BEFORE THE EVENT?
It was a once-only event. Such specific forewarning could not have resulted from scientific deduction, since the event was contrary to past experience of the accepted operation of nature.
2. HOW DID HE KNOW IT WAS TO BE A DISASTER IN WHICH THE PRIME AGENCY WOULD BE WATER? The character of the disaster being known 120 years before the event is unprecedented in science. The notion that it may have been a scientific forecast must therefore be rejected.
3. HOW DID HE KNOW THAT THE SURFACE DESTRUCTION OF THIS PLANET WOULD BE SO COMPLETE THAT THERE WOULD BE NO SURVIVORS? This very knowledge is what prompted him to preserve a breeding pair of every life form.
4. HOW DID HE KNOW WHAT OPTIMUM SPECIFICATIONS TO INCORPORATE IN THE SURVIVAL VESSEL, SO THAT IT WOULD RIDE OUT AN EVENT OF UNPRECEDENTED VIOLENCE? There was no latitude for trial and error. Clearly, with no past experience of such a global cataclysm, the building of the Ark would have been a logistical nightmare. Noah had one chance only. And no opportunity for sea trials. Yet he built on land a ship of the best possible dimensions for the greatest carrying power, combined with the least resistance of the waves. Tell me please, WAS NOAH STABBING IN THE DARK, OR WAS HE GIVEN THE BLUEPRINT, AS GENESIS SAYS?
5. The precise boarding time was likewise important. Take the animals on board too early – whether years, months or weeks too early – and there could be big problems. Or wait until too late… That’s too
horrible to contemplate. “HOW DID NOAH KNOW, AFTER ALL THOSE YEARS OF PREPARATION – HOW DID HE KNOW WHEN THE TIME WAS EXACTLY RIGHT, TO GO ON BOARD?
Noah couldn’t have known by himself. No one could guess things like that. But then… or even today… Well, he MUST have known. there HAD to be a Superior Intelligence operating in it all.
Ages in chaos – DATING SHOCK
Get ready for a SHOCK! Perhaps even anger. Some powerful men are trying to keep us in the dark. These same men control what our children learn. Let me explain.
SOME HOT QUESTIONS
To fulfill its stated purpose, the Deluge had to be a total wipe-out. It was a re-structuring event, which altered every square foot of the planet’s surface. Furthermore, this occurred “only” about 4 500 years ago. If, indeed, this is true history, then the popularised geological time-table is wrong. It also means that all of us have descended in very recent times from the sons of Noah.
Now, I realise this will raise further questions, such as these:
1. What about carbon dating?
2. What about the Australian Aborigines? Haven’t they lived undisturbed for 20,000, 40,000, even 60,000 years? So what does this do to a WORLDWIDE Flood of 2345 B.C?
3. How could all the variations in the human race have occurred?
For answers on the dating questions, see the paper “Evolution” on www.gospel-truth.co.za.
As for the possibility on variations in the human race, consider the following:
Have all races appeared since Noah? NOT ENOUGH TIME?
The hands and face of Jaron Yaltan are a pallid white – like those of millions of other Englishmen.
Only the edges of his ears are different, if you look closely. They are brown. This is the sole clue – outwardly – to the fact that Jaron Yaltan is a white man who was born black in Ahmedabad, South India. In 1982, when he was 60, the brown fell away in huge patches as the rare pigment cell disorder vitiligo changed his colour within the space of six days. It has aroused radical reaction from his former friends. “ This is the white man’s burden. I am carrying it now,” says Jaron. “And, believe me, it is very heavy.” This brings us to a fascinating question: IF THE WORLD WAS WIPED OUT, EXCEPT FOR A SINGLE GROUP OF SURVIVORS, THEN HOWEVER COULD ALL TODAY’S VARIATIONS IN THE HUMAN RACE HAVE OCCURRED IN JUST A FEW THOUSAND YEARS SINCE THAT TIME?
What about the Australian Aborigines, for example, and the Chinese, and so on? Frankly, I’ll confess that for ages I found this to be a problem for scientific acceptance of a 100 percent Great Flood total wipe-out. That’s because I did not know enough about genetics. Take skin colour, for example. If you didn’t know, mankind actually has only one skin colour. That colour shows up as different shades in
proportion to the amount of melanin in the skin. (Melanin is a colouring compound). Melanin protects our bodies by absorbing ultra-violet (UV) radiation from sunlight which falls on the skin. Darker-skinned people have more melanin, which renders their skin more sunlight resistant. Thus they are better suited to hotter climates. Lighter skinned people are better suited to a cooler environment.
GOVERNED BY TWO PAIRS OF GENES
John Mckay B.Sc. writes that “if a person from a pure white European background marries a person from a pure black Negro background, their children will be an intermediate brown colour. This brownish colour is called ‘mulatto’. If two MULATTOS marry, unlike their parents they DO NOT produce children which have the same colour. The offspring can be ANY OF NINE COLOURS, from pure white through to pure black.” Thus “ if we started today with one pair of middle-brown coloured people (similar to the mulattos), we could produce all the racial colours in the world, NOT IN MILLIONS OF YEARS, NOR IN THOUSANDS OF YEARS, BUT IN ONLY ONE GENERATION.” (John Mackay, Ex Nihilo, vol.6, no.4, May, 1984. Emphasis added)
Did you get that? In just one generation!
HOW IT WORKS
A child receives half its genes from each parent. Let’s call these genes A and B. The genes have partners, a and b. Genes A and B are good at producing melanin (which darkens the skin). Result: A person with two pairs of genes AA and BB will have darker skin. Genes a and b both produce less melanin. Result: A person with two pairs of genes aa and bb will have very light skin. A person with gene pairs Aa and Bb (let’s write it as AaBb) will have medium-coloured skin. And so on. Now, suppose both parents are AaBb (medium-brown). The mother gives the child two genes for skin colour – one from type A or a, the other from B or b. The father likewise gives two genes for skin colour – one from type A or a, the other from B or b. So each of these middle-brown parents with AaBb can give his/her children any one of the following pairs of gene combinations: AB, Ab, aB or ab. For example, suppose each parent passes on the AB combination to the new child. The mother gives the child AB. The father gives the child AB. Result: The child will be born with AABB – and thus will be PURE
BLACK. But if both parents pass on the ab combination (the mother giving the child ab; the father giving the child ab), then what? Result: The child will be born with aabb – and will be PURE WHITE.
… EVEN THOUGH BOTH PARENTS WERE MEDIUM-BROWN SKINNED!
HOW COLOUR BECOMES PERMANENT
Notice that the PURE BLACK child is born AABB – that is, he has no genes for lightness. If a group of pure black persons is isolated, their offspring will be only black. These children will have lost the ability to be “white”. Likewise, when aabb children marry their own type (pure white) and move away to interbreed only among themselves, they will produce from now on only white offspring. They have lost their ability to be black. They no longer have genes to produce a great deal of melanin. If we started today with just two MIDDLE-BROWN parents, they could produce extreme racial colours (BLACK and WHITE), in a way that races would have PERMANENTLY DIFFERENT colours. A fixed middle-brown colour could also be produced. If the original middle-brown parents produce children of either AAbb or aaBB and these offspring move away and interact only with their kind, their descendants will be a fixed middle-brown colour.
REVERSING THE PROCESS
Despite marked differences, the races would disappear if total intermarriage were practised today. There would reappear a brown coloured majority, with a sprinkling of every other shade permitted within the
genetic pool. The genes for Chinese almond eyes, black skin or white, etcetera, would still exist, but the combinations would be different. Interestingly, you can find the characteristics of ANY race in EVERY race. For example, some Europeans have broad, flat noses, and others have short, frizzy hair, but on average Europeans do not have these features. The same sorts of genetic re-combinations that have produced skin colour variations have produced other body variations – straight hair, wavy hair, eye shape, eye colour, body height, and so on. We do not know the total number of gene differences which mark off a Negro from a white Dane. One authority considers it unlikely that there are more than six pairs of genes in which the white race differs characteristically from the black. (William C. Boyd (Professor of Immunochemistry at Boston School of Medicine), Genetics and the Races of Man. P.200ff)
GENES FOR ALL RACES EXISTED AT THE START
The first man was designed with the best possible combination of skin colour genes for his perfect created environment. The Great Flood radically altered that environment. Evidently, Noah’s family possessed genes for both light and dark skin, dark enough to protect them, yet light enough to ensure sufficient Vitamin D.
ALL RACIAL VARIETIES COULD POSSIBLY APPEAR IN JUST ONE GENERATION
From the above data it can be seen that all the known varieties of skin colour could come from one pair of mid-brown parents IN ONE GENERATION. In general, racial characteristics are re-combinations of pre-existing, created hereditary (genetic) information. They have not evolved and they do not require a long time to become apparent. Let’s be clear on this. There has been no evolution of genes that did not
previously exist. All that has occurred is the recombination and degeneration of created genetic information. The splitting up of a large group into many smaller groups who became isolated from each other would provide the ideal condition for the RAPID APPEARANCE of many different racial groups with distinct characteristics. This is doubtless what occurred. There is overwhelming archaeological
evidence for a common origin for all races on this planet. (Jonathan Gray, Dead Men’s Secrets, pp.16-19. www.archaeologyanswers.com). In Book 3 of this series, we shall touch on the fact of an original common language for the whole human race – and how dispersion occurred from an area of the Middle East. The biblical account of this event (supported by many ancient traditions of nations everywhere) fits the evidence well. The scattering of mankind shortly after the Great Flood, when their
language was suddenly confused, was the catalyst that produced the variations now seen.
IT HAS NOT TAKEN COUNTLESS MILLENNIA TO PRODUCE THE DIFFERENCES WE SEE TODAY.
Before leaving this question, it may be of interest to note a comment by Professor William C. Boyd, Professor of Immunochemistry at the Boston University School of Medicine: “We should not be surprised if identical genes crop up in all corners of the earth, or if the over-all racial differences we detect prove to be small. We do not know the total number of gene differences which mark off a Negro
of the Alur tribe in the Belgian Congo from a white native of Haderslev, Denmark. Glass has suggested that the number of gene differences even in such a case is probably small. Besides a few genes for skin colour, he thinks that there may be a dominant gene for kinky hair and a pair or two of genes for facial features. He considers it unlikely that there are more than six pairs of genes in which the white race differs characteristically from the black. This estimate errs somewhat on the small side, in the opinion of the present writer. Probably, however, it is of the right order of magnitude, and any outraged conviction that the difference between the two races must be much greater than this, which some persons might feel, is likely to be based on emotional, rather than rational, factors.” (William C. Boyd, Genetics and the Races of Man, p. 200f). The differences did not take countless ages to produce.
THE MANY NEW ANIMAL AND PLANT VARIETIES
But what about the numerous animal and plant species? Isn’t time a problem, here? Formation of so many varieties of animals and plants from each original type in the Ark – wouldn’t this have required much longer time than just a few thousand years? On the Galapagos Islands, for example, there are 13 species of finches. It is usually speculated that for these to develop from an original pair of finches must have taken from one million to five million years. Well, let’s see…
VARIATION WITHIN THE KIND
It is important, at this stage, to understand a basic fact of genetics. The laws of genetics have shown us that each basic type, whether dog, butterfly or human, has programmed into it the capacity for variation. This ensures survival in different environments. The Yarrow is an example of the marvellous adaptability which lies within the hereditary complex of many plant kinds:
– medium height races along the coast
– tall races inland
– low, mat-forming races on the mountain tops.
Yet, with all this variety within the basic type, there is never any doubt that a new race of yarrow is still a yarrow. It is true, you see, that an organism’s DNA programme (inbuilt set of instructions) imposes limits: variations within the basic type, yes, BUT capacity to turn into a different basic type of organism, no!
Take dogs, for example. From an original pair have come wolves, dingoes, coyotes, and so on.
In the varieties that appear, no new genetic information is introduced. Each new variety is more specialised than the original parent, and thus carries less information – and consequently has less potential for further selection. (Thus, in dogs, you can’t breed Great Danes from Chihuahuas.)
So no matter how many variations take place within a “kind”, kangaroos are still kangaroos, dogs are still dogs and finches are still finches. A long-legged sheep may mutate into a short-legged sheep – but never into a deer. A white moth species may change into a grey moth – but never will it become a spider. Scientific breeders can produce seedless grapefruit, white turkeys, cattle without horns – but all within the limits of the original type. There are LIMITS to change, you see. These limits are set by the amount of information that was originally present, from which to select.
SPEED OF NEW SPECIES DEVELOPMENT SINCE THE FLOOD
Now for the time factor. Sweet peas can be frilled, plain, scented, scentless, red, white or blue – but
they are still sweet peas. Did you know that of the 500 types of sweet pea we have, all have developed from a single type since the year 1700? Well, that’s artificial selection, someone will say. That is quick, because man is deliberately acting on each generation. So let’s observe natural selection at work on its own. An intensive 18 year study of the Galapagos finches has been undertaken by Princeton zoology professor Peter Grant. He found that during years of drought, as finches depleted the small-seed supply, the finches that survived were those with larger, deeper beaks which could get at the remaining large seeds. This shifted the population in that direction. Grant was amazed at the observed rate of change in the population. At this observed rate, he estimates, it would take only 1,200 years to transform the medium ground finch into the cactus finch, for example. Or only 200 years to convert it into the more similar large ground finch. (P.R. Grant, “Natural Selection and Darwin’s Finches,” Scientific American, October, 1991, pp.60-65). Remember, however, that no new genes are being produced by mutation. It is simply the selection of what is already there. This fails to qualify as evidence for real, uphill (macro) evolution. Rather, it is evidence that “downhill” adaptation into several varieties can
easily occur in just a few centuries – not requiring millions of years. Bare in mind, also, that after the Flood, with residual catastrophes occurring as the earth was settling down and drying out (see Book 3 of this series), with changing climate, and rapid migration into new, empty niches, selection pressure would have been much more intense. The time factor since the Great Flood is quite adequate, you see.
What, then, have we discovered?
There is solid, tangible evidence that:
1. A disaster of extraordinary proportions has occurred on this planet.
2. It was sudden.
3. Life forms worldwide were rapidly buried in sediments laid down by moving water. (This is fully consistent with a global Flood.)
4. It involved human beings.
5. These victims were highly civilised.
Virtually all of ancient mankind said they “remembered” such an event. Obviously, the disaster must have had some degree of reality to be so deeply entwined in the histories of so many cultures. The sceptic should now ask himself: Is there good reason why we should not credit these reports? After all, the reports do tally with the facts – remains that can be seen and touched today. These cannot be argued away.
IN BOOK 2 OF THIS 3-PART SERIES, WE SHALL UNCOVER THESE STARTLING PHYSICAL RELICS.
A ONCE PERFECT CLIMATE
The former world was rich beyond our dreams – in its stark beauty, in its environment and its quality of life. On that, physical evidence and historical traditions agree. It appears that the world then was as perfect as one could desire. Everything about it was just right. Mankind, so the sacred records affirm, was placed on this beautiful planet as its custodian. He was granted every privilege, including a free will to make his own decisions. But something went wrong. Deadly wrong. WHY… WHY… WHY?
If God made this world good, as that old Book says, then:
- Why is the climate so HARSH?
- Why the hurricanes, floods and droughts that destroy so much life?
- Why is only 18 percent of our world suitable for human habitation? Why are huge areas under desert or under perpetual ice?
- Why is the soil impoverished, so that millions starve?
WHAT KIND OF GOD WOULD CREATE THIS KIND OF WORLD?”
If a Superior Intelligence – a Supreme Being – did make this place, then, as we’ve now seen, He did hand over to us a mighty fine planet to start with, with freedom to enjoy it. So what went wrong? Well, we do make our own choices. And you can trust US to mess things up! So is it fair to blame someone else? Oh well, that’s another story. And this story is contained in The Bible.
(The End of the essay by Jonathan Grey)
More intriguing thoughts are also discovered in the other papers on the website www.gospel-truth.co.za.
God’s peace to you in Jesus Christ.
The Bird in the Desert
On December 29, 1946, the American zoologist Edmund Jager and a party of students were on an expedition in the Mojave Desert of southern California. As the group passed through a small, narrow canyon in the Chuckawalla Mountains, Jager spotted something curious on the wall of a cliff. In one of
the numerous weathered shallow hollows no bigger than a hand, sat a bird. It was a poor-will. Its spotted grey plumage harmonised perfectly with the crystalline structure of the grey granite. They paused to watch it for about ten minutes. The bird gave not the slightest sign of life. Then Jager stretched out his hand to touch it. He ran his hand down its back several times, but the bird gave no reaction to suggest that there was any life left in it. The group trudged on. About two hours later, when they came back through the small canyon again, there was the bird, still sitting in the hollow. Its position was unchanged. This time Jager reached in and took the bird out. It felt unusually light. In
fact, it seemed to be dried out. The bird’ s feet and its eyelids, on which a bird’s temperature can be felt, were plain cold. Jager concluded that the bird had frozen to death in its place of shelter. He placed the poor-will back in the hollow, then they continued their trek.
Jager mentioned the incident to his friend, Professor Lloyd Smith, who expressed an interest to see this unusual find. So ten days after his first visit, Jager was back with his friend – and there was the bird, still in the same place, its position unchanged. One of the men removed it from the niche. Then, as he was holding it to examine it, an amazing thing happened. The poor-will’s beak opened, and the bird uttered a few very high-pitched, whimpering, squeaking notes. And the poor-will’s eyes opened briefly – or so they both thought. Then suddenly the bird lifted its wings. But the movement looked lifeless and
mechanical. Cautiously, Jager attempted to fold the wings back into their previous position, but he couldn’t. As soon as he let go, the wings just snapped back, like steel springs, into the lifted position. So he used force, and succeeded finally to lay them flat against the body. Then Jager placed the bird back into its hollow to remain there as an oddity – something to show future student expeditions. The bird did not look so good after all the handling. The plumage was now tousled and the wings stood at an unnatural angle. The two scientists went on through the canyon.
Passing back two hours later, they saw that nothing had changed. The bird remained in the same unnatural posture into which they had placed it earlier. However, they thought this would make an interesting camera shot, so they again took the bird from its niche to hold it. Then something happened that startled them. The poor-will suddenly flew up and away. The men could hardly believe their eyes. They just stood there watching, as the bird, wings beating rapidly, flew skilfully up along the cliff wall and found itself another rock hollow higher up beyond their reach. How ever could this be? Had they been witnessing a bird in hibernation, which had been progressively awakened or disturbed by their handling, and had finally had flown away?
We know that during hibernation, the metabolism of animals is sharply reduced. Observations of mammals in hibernation have confirmed that the normal rate of 300 heartbeats a minute declines to just 5 beats. An animal in hibernation has only its pilot light going, so to speak. But until this incident, hibernation in birds had never been observed.
Almost a year later, at the end of November 1947, Jager came back. And he was fortunate to find the poor-will again, in the very same cliff niche. On this occasion, he had the opportunity to conduct careful studies. He was able to confirm that a bird – and a desert bird at that – could indeed hibernate.
First, he took the bird’s temperature at the anus. The reading was 18 degrees C. (that is 64 degrees F). Since that was higher than the temperature of the surroundings, it proved that the bird was still alive and was actually in hibernation. The normal temperature of this bird is about 42 degrees C. (108 degrees F.), so the poor-will had lowered its body temperature by about 24 degrees C. (44 degrees F). When the scientist applied a stethoscope to the bird’s breast it told him nothing. The poor-will’s heart was beating so slowly and feebly that it could not be heard. He then placed a cold metal mirror in front of the bird’s nostrils. The mirror did not mist over, as would be the case if there was any noticeable breathing.
To determine once and for all if the bird was alive, Jager tried a final experiment. Opening one of the creature’s eyelids, he flashed a penlight into the pupil of the eye. Again, he observed no reaction. In fact, the bird did not even try to close its eyelid. But the bird was definitely alive, The measured body temperature proved that. Every two weeks Jager came back to weigh the bird. The weight was found to be slowly diminishing: 45.61 grams, 45.58 grams, 45.50 grams, 44.56 grams.
These measurements indicated the very slow rate at which the hibernating bird was consuming its reserves of fat. The hibernation continued right through winter – for three months. Then the bird ended its deathlike rigidity, having consumed only 6 grams of fat. Interestingly, this bird came back to hibernate in the very same hollow in that same cliff for the next two years, 1948 and 1949. In response to his published report, Jager received many letters reporting similar phenomena.